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3 Quizzes 9/27: Ventricular System 11/20: Brainstem and Basal Ganglia 12/6: Cranial Nerves Clinical Notebooks Due : 11/13 ---- no late submissions accepted. 2 Exams 11/1: Somatosensory System, Visual System, Central Auditory System, and Vestibular System

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class grades
3 Quizzes

9/27: Ventricular System

11/20: Brainstem and Basal Ganglia

12/6: Cranial Nerves

Clinical Notebooks Due:

11/13----no late submissions accepted

2 Exams

11/1: Somatosensory System, Visual System, Central Auditory System, and Vestibular System

11/27: Motor System: Cortical Level, Cerebellum, Brainstem, Basal Ganglia and Spinal Cord

Class grades
learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • 1. Describe the meninges, their locations, and their functions.
  • 2. Identify parts of the ventricular cavities.
  • 3. Discuss functions of cerebrospinal fluid.
  • 4. Describe the mechanism of cerebrospinal fluid production.
  • 5. Describe the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.
  • 6. Explain the diagnostic significance of the cerebrospinal fluid.
protection of the cns
Protection of the CNS
  • Function:
    • CNS is fairly soft and gelatinous in nature
    • Basic protection
meninges of the brain1
Meninges of the Brain
  • Three Meninges:
the meninges
The Meninges
  • Bhatnagar & Andy, 1995, Figure 2.45A
meningeal layers dura mater1
Meningeal Layers: Dura Mater
  • Structure:
    • Two spaces
    • Two fibrous layers of the dura
the meninges1
The Meninges
  • Bhatnagar & Andy, 1995, Figure 2.45A
the meninges2
The Meninges
  • Love & Webb, 1996, Figure 3-3
dural extensions
Dural Extensions
  • Falx Cerebri
    • Location:
    • Cavity Formations:
dural extensions on midsagittal section
Dural Extensions on Midsagittal Section
  • Bhatnagar & Andy, 1995, Figure 2.43
dural extensions on coronal view
Dural Extensions on Coronal View
  • Bhatnagar & Andy, 1995, Figure 2.44A
dural extensions1
Dural Extensions
  • Tentorium Cerebelli
    • Location:
    • Tentorial Notch
dural extensions on midsagittal section1
Dural Extensions on Midsagittal Section
  • Bhatnagar & Andy, 1995, Figure 2.43
dural extensions on coronal view1
Dural Extensions on Coronal View
  • Bhatnagar & Andy, 1995, Figure 2.44A
dural extensions2
Dural Extensions
  • Falx Cerebelli
    • Location:
dural extensions on midsagittal section2
Dural Extensions on Midsagittal Section
  • Bhatnagar & Andy, 1995, Figure 2.43
dural extensions on coronal view2
Dural Extensions on Coronal View
  • Bhatnagar & Andy, 1995, Figure 2.44A
meningeal layers arachnoid membrane1
Meningeal Layers: Arachnoid Membrane
  • Spaces:
    • 1. Subarachnoid space
    • 2. Subdural space:
the meninges3
The Meninges
  • Bhatnagar & Andy, 1995, Figure 2.45A
arachnoid villi or granulations
Arachnoid Villi or Granulations
  • Bhatnagar & Andy, 1995, Figure 2.41
meningeal layers pia mater
Meningeal Layers: Pia Mater
  • Location:
  • Structure:
the spinal cord and its meninges
The Spinal Cord and Its Meninges
  • Bhatnagar & Andy, 1995, Figure 2.46
the ventricular system
The Ventricular System
  • Three Parts:
  • Function:
ventricular system lateral view
Ventricular System: Lateral View
  • Bhatnagar & Andy, 1995, Figure 2.35A
ventricular system dorsal view
Ventricular System: Dorsal View
  • Bhatnagar & Andy, 1995, Figure 2.35B
the lateral ventricles
The Lateral Ventricles
  • Structure and Shape:
  • Location:
  • Connection:
  • Choroid Plexus:
the third ventricle
The Third Ventricle
  • Location and Shape:
  • Connection:
  • Choroid Plexus:
the fourth ventricle
The Fourth Ventricle
  • Location:
  • Shape:
  • Structure:
  • Function:
subarachnoid space
Subarachnoid Space
  • Location:
  • Arachnoid Trabeculae
the meninges4
The Meninges
  • Bhatnagar & Andy, 1995, Figure 2.45A
ventricles
Ventricles
  • Inner Walls
cerebrospinal fluid
Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • Structure:
  • Circulation
  • Function:
choroid plexus
Choroid Plexus
  • Function:
  • Location:
path of csf circulation
Path of CSF Circulation
  • Pathway:
    • Flows from the lateral ventricles into the third ventricle
      • Via Monro’s foramen
    • Then flows from the third ventricle to the fourth ventricle through the cerebral aqueduct
    • Then flows from the fourth ventricle into the subarachnoid space through three apertures
      • Two lateral Foramina of Luschka
      • One mediodorsal Magendie’s foramen
    • Then travels to reach the inferior surface of the cerebrum and moves superiorly over the lateral aspect of each hemisphere
    • Some of it moves into the subarachnoid space around the spinal cord
the ventricular system midsagittal view
The Ventricular System: Midsagittal View
  • Bhatnagar & Andy, 1995, Figure 18.2
circulation of the csf
Circulation of the CSF
  • Love & Webb, 1996, Figure 3-6
clinical considerations
Clinical Considerations
  • Drainage of the CSF
  • Inadequate Drainage of the CSF
clinical considerations1
Clinical Considerations
  • Rate of CSF Production
  • Disassociation between Production and Absorption Rate of the CSF
clinical considerations2
Clinical Considerations
  • Hydrocephalus
    • Increased Pressure in the Brain
    • Sustained Pressure
mri of enlarged lateral ventricles secondary to hydrocephalus
MRI of Enlarged Lateral Ventricles Secondary to Hydrocephalus
  • Bhatnagar & Andy, 1995, Figure 18.3
medical diagnostic procedures
Medical Diagnostic Procedures
  • Measurement of the pressure of the fluid
    • If abnormally high, may suspect:
      • Intracranial tumor
      • Intracranial hemorrhage
      • Hydrocephalus
      • Meningitis
      • Encephalitis
treatment
Treatment
  • Hydrocephalus
    • No longer a fatal condition
      • If diagnosed early
        • Can be surgically treated
    • Treatment
      • Involves diverting the blocked ventricular CSF
        • To another cavity for absorption
      • Procedure
        • Tube is surgically inserted in the ventricular cavity
          • And use to divert CSF flow to the peritoneal cavity in the abdomen
medical diagnostic procedures1
Medical Diagnostic Procedures
  • Lumbar Puncture or Spinal Tap
    • Needle inserted into the lumbar subarachnoid space
      • Between the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae
        • Because spinal penetration at this point does not cause any injury to nerve fibers
    • Attach needle hub to a manometer or other pressure sensitive device
      • A pressure level higher than normal suggests that a pathologic process exists
medical diagnostic procedures2
Medical Diagnostic Procedures
  • Catheter Insertion into the Lateral Ventricles
    • Measure Ventricular pressure
      • Increased intracranial pressure occurs in response to:
        • 1. Increased amounts of CSF
        • 2. Brain swelling
        • 3. And brain tumors
medical diagnostic procedures3
Medical Diagnostic Procedures
  • Additional Procedures Associated with Spinal Puncture
    • Procedure also used to draw out CSF for chemical or cell studies
      • Diseases of the CNS change the constituent composition of the CSF
        • An alteration serves as a diagnostic tool for identifying pathologic changes that occur in the brain and spinal cord
          • May suggest acute bacterial meningitis
    • Route used to inject drugs to combat infection or to induce anesthesia
      • Anesthesia prevents nerve impulses from being conducted through the spinal nerves
        • From the lower body up to the level of the spinal injection
define the following technical terms
Arachnoid granulations

Arachnoid trabecula

Cerebrospinal fluid

Choroid plexus

Ependymal cells

Intracranial pressure

Lumbar Puncture

Meninges

Meningitis

Septum

Subarachnoid space

Subdural space

Ventricles

Define the Following Technical Terms:
review questions
Review Questions
  • 1. Discuss the function of the meningeal membranes of the brain and spinal cord.
  • 2. Describe the location of epidural, subdural, and arachnoid spaces.
  • 3. Name the dural extensions of the brain and describe their relationship to the brain.
  • 4. With a labeled diagram, identify major parts of the ventricular system.
  • 5. Discuss the functions of the cerebrospinal fluid.
  • 6. Discuss the production, circulation, and absorption of the cerebrospinal fluid.
  • 7. Describe the mechanism, clinical implications, and treatment of hydrocephalus.