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The Chord P2P Network
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The Chord P2P Network

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  1. The Chord P2P Network Some slides taken from the original presentation by the authors

  2. Main features of Chord • Load balancing via Consistent Hashing • Small routing tables: log n • Small routing delay: log n • Fast join/leave protocol

  3. Consistent Hashing Assigns both nodes and objects from an m-bit key. Order these nodes around an identifier circle according to the order of their keys (0 .. 2m-1). This ring is known as the Chord Ring. Object with key k is assigned to the first node whose key is ≥ k (called the successor node of key k)

  4. Consistent Hashing (0) D120 N105 D20 N=128 Circular 7-bit ID space N32 N90 D80 Example: Node 90 is the “successor” of document 80.

  5. Consistent Hashing Property 1 If there are N nodes and K keys, then with high probability, each node is responsible for (1+ )K/N keys. ( = O(log N) Property 2 When an (N+1) joins or leaves the network, the responsibility of at most O(K/N) keys changes hand (only to or from the node that is joining or leaving. When K is large, the impact is quite small.

  6. Consistent hashing [Karger 97] Key 5 K5 Node 105 N105 K20 Circular 7-bit ID space N32 N90 K80 A key is stored at its successor: node with next higher ID

  7. The log N Fingers (0) 1/4 1/2 Distance of N80’s neighbors from N80 Circular (log N)-bit ID space 1/8 1/16 1/32 1/64 1/128 N80 Each node knows of only log N other nodes.

  8. Finger i points to successor of n+2i N120 112 ½ ¼ 1/8 1/16 1/32 1/64 1/128 N80

  9. Chord Finger Table N32’s Finger Table (0) N113 33..33 N40 34..35 N40 36..39 N40 40..47 N40 48..63 N52 64..95 N70 96..31 N102 N102 N=128 N32 N85 N40 N80 N79 N52 Finger table actually contains ID and IP address N70 N60 Node n’s i-th entry: first node  n + 2i-1

  10. N70’s Finger Table Lookup 71..71 N79 72..73 N79 74..77 N79 78..85 N80 86..101 N102 102..5 N102 6..69 N32 Greedy routing (0) N113 N32’s Finger Table N102 33..33 N40 34..35 N40 36..39 N40 40..47 N40 48..63 N52 64..95 N70 96..31 N102 N80’s Finger Table N32 N85 81..81 N85 82..83 N85 84..87 N85 88..95 N102 96..111 N102 112..15 N113 16..79 N32 N40 N80 N52 N79 N70 N60 Node 32, lookup(82): 32  70  80  85.

  11. New Node Join N20’s Finger Table (0) N113 N20 1 21..21 2 22..23 3 24..27 4 28..35 5 36..51 6 52..83 7 84..19 N102 N32 N40 N80 N52 N70 N60 Assume N20 knows one of the existing nodes.

  12. New Node Join (2) N20’s Finger Table (0) N113 N20 21..21 N32 22..23 N32 24..27 N32 28..35 N32 36..51 N40 52..83 N52 84..19 N102 N102 N32 N40 N80 N52 N70 N60 Node 20 asks that node for successor to 21, 22, …, 52, 84.

  13. The Join procedure The new node id asks a gateway node n to find the successor of id n.(find_successor(id) if id  (n, successor] then return successor else forward the query around the circle fi Needs O(n) messages. This is slow.

  14. Steps in join Linked list insert n n id id Successor(n) Finally But the transition does not happen immediately

  15. A More Efficient Join // ask n to find the successor of id if id  (n, successor] then return successor else n’= closest_ preceding_node (id) return n’.find_successor(id) fi // search for the highest predecessor of id n. closest_preceding_node(id) for i = log N downto 1 if (finger[i]  (n,id) return finger[i]

  16. Example N20 wants to find out the successor of key 65 (0) N113 N20 N102 N32 N40 N80 N52 N70 N60 K65

  17. After join move objects (0) N20’s Finger Table N113 N20 21..21 N32 22..23 N32 24..27 N32 28..35 N32 36..51 N40 52..83 N52 84..19 N102 N102 D114..20 N32 N40 N80 N52 Notify nodes that must include N20 in their table. N113[1]=N20, not N32. N70 N60 Node 20 moves documents from node 32.

  18. Three steps in join Step 1. Initialize predecessor and fingers of the new node. Step 2. Update the predecessor and the fingers of the existing nodes. (Thus notify nodes that must include N20 in their table. N110[1] = N20, not N32. Step 3. Transfer objects to the new node as appropriate. (Knowledge of predecessor is useful in stabilization)

  19. Concurrent Join n1 n1 New node n’ New node n’ New node n New node n n2 n2 [Before] [After]

  20. Stabilization Periodic stabilization is needed to integrate the new node into the network and restore the invariant. n1 New node n New node n n2 n2 Predecessor.successor(n1) ≠ n1, so n1 adopts predecessor.successor(n1) = n as its new successor

  21. The complexity of join With high probability, any node joining or leaving an N-node Chord network will use O(log 2N) messages to re-establish the Chord routing invariants and finger tables.

  22. Chord Summary • Log(n) lookup messages and table space. • Well-defined location for each ID. • No search required. • Natural load balance. • No name structure imposed. • Minimal join/leave disruption.