Teaching Tools For Increasing Comprehension and Expanding Vocabulary
Essential Questions • What are effective comprehension and vocabulary tools in the KCLM? • How do these tools relate to the reading strategies outlined in the model? • How can these tools help struggling students? • How can I use these tools in my daily teaching practice?
Learning Targets • I can explain the comprehension and vocabulary tools of the KCLM. • I can explain the reading strategy that each tool supports. • I am able to embed the tools in unit and lesson planning to aid student learning.
Important MostWord Understanding is one of the most cherished goals of education. Teaching for understanding can bring knowledge to life by requiring students to manipulate knowledge in various ways. For instance, understanding a historical event means going beyond the facts to explain them, explore the remote causes, discuss the incident as different people might see it from their own perspectives, and skeptically critique what various sources say.
Seven Reading Strategies for Highly Effective Thinkers and Readers • Connect to Prior Knowledge and Develop Schema • Draw Inferences and Predict • Ask Questions Before, During and After Reading • Determine Importance and Summarize Text • Visualize and Create Sensory Images • Synthesize and Retell • Monitor/Clarify Understanding of Text
Proficient Thinkers and Readers Connect to Prior Knowledge and Develop Schema • They use their unique background knowledge to understand the text as they read..
Connecting to Prior Knowledge/Developing Schema Comprehension Tools • Anticipation/Reaction guide • Question/Answer/Relationship • Skimming • Pictograph • Comparison Matrix Chart • Comparison Guide Map • Note-taking Using Both Sides of the Brain
Connecting to Prior Knowledge/Developing Schema Vocabulary Tools • Wordstorm • Word Sorts • Three Way Tie • Connect the Word • LitFig • Four Square Vocabulary Map/Frayer Model • Word Questioning • Text Impressions • Cinquain • Rate Your knowledge • Vocabulary Tree • Password • Memory • Most Important Word
Wordstorm • Effective pre-teaching activity • Students predict how words will be used in context • Enhances students’ connections with technical or specialized vocabulary
What is the word? Combustion Write the sentence from the text in which the word is used. • Combustion includes many chemical reactions. What are some words that you think of when you see this word? • explosionfireheat Do you know any other forms of this word? • combustiblecombustibilitycombustive Name three people who would use this word. • firemenchemistrocket builder Can you think of any other words that mean the same thing? • flamingburningvisible oxidation Write a sentence using this word appropriately. Make sure your sentence tells us what the word means. • Combustion is a chemical reaction that gives off heat and light. Klemp, R.M The Reading Teacher(1994)
Application • Find the article “7 Traits for a Winning Life” • Choose a word from the article • With a partner, complete the Wordstorm template • Be ready to share out
Proficient Thinkers/Readers Draw Inferences and Predict • Inferring is the process of creating meaning by connecting what is in the reader’s head with what is in the text.
Inferring and Predicting • Questions/Answer/Relationships (QAR) • Skimming • Graphic Organizers for Analogies and Metaphors • Classification Graphic Organizer
Inferring and Predicting Vocabulary Tools • Wordstorm • Three Way Tie • Connect the Words • LitFig • Word Questioning • Text Impressions • Rate Your Knowledge • Password • Most Important Word
QAR- Question/Answer/ Relationships QAR is a framework that offers an approach to reading comprehension instruction. It clarifies for students where to find information needed to answer questions.
Two core sources of information: In My Head Background knowledge comes into play. In the Book (or video, photo, text…) The answer is there.
Proficient Thinkers/Readers Ask Questions They generate questions BEFORE, DURING, and AFTER reading.
Asking Questions • Anticipation/Reaction Guide • QAR • Mind Mapping • Cornell Notes • Rule-based Strategy
Asking Questions Vocabulary Tools • Word Sort • Three Way Tie • Connect the Words • LitFig • Word Questioning • Text Impressions • Rate Your Knowledge • Most Important Word
people who dig up things to show how people lived in the past finding things to show what the past was like. -ology appears in biology-the study of life The class trip they took to the cave dwellings made the students feel like archaeologists. burying or hiding things. So when I hear the word-because someone found rare stuff like jewels; I’ll know what it is. Caves, deserts ruins. In magazines, Indiana Jones, titanic, Disc. Channel An archaeologist is like a human shovel.
Application • With a partner, choose one word or concept from the article • Complete the word questioning graphic organizer • Be prepared to share with the group • Discuss implementation uses
Proficient Thinkers/Readers Determine Importance and Summarize Text I found it! And can support their ideas with evidence from the text..
Determining Important Ideas and Summarizing • QAR • Pattern Organizers • Comparison Matrix Chart • Comparison Guide Map • Graphic Organizer for Analogies & Metaphors • Cornell Notes • Note-taking Using Both Sides of the Brain • Summary Frame • Rule-based Strategy
Determining Importance Ideas and Summarizing Vocabulary Tools • Word Sort • Word Questioning • Cinquain • Most Important Word
Summary Frames #1: Narrative Frame, p. 35 #2: Topic/Restriction-Illustration Frame, p. 37 Definition Frame, p. 38 #3: Argumentation Frame, p. 39 #4: Problem-Solution Frame, p. 40 #5: Conversation Frame, p. 41
Definition Frame • What is being defined? • To which general category does the item belong? • What characteristics separate the item from other things in the general category? • What are some different types or classes of the item being defined?
Proficient Thinkers/Readers….. Visualize and create sensory images as they read.
Ways to Visualize • Create graphic representations • Draw pictures or pictographs • Generate mental images • Make physical models • Engage in kinesthetic activities
Visualizing/Creating Sensory Images • Skimming • Pattern Organizers • Mind Mapping • Pictograph • Comparison Guide Map • Graphic Organizer for Analogy and Metaphors • Note-taking Using Both Sides of the Brain
Visualizing/Creating Sensory Images Vocabulary Activities • Word Sort • Three Way Tie • Connect the Words • LitFig • Four Square Vocabulary Map/Frayer Model • Word Questioning • Cinquain • Password
Create a Pictograph The Principle of Sowing and Reaping Sow a thought, and you reap an act; Sow an act, and you reap a habit; Sow a habit, and you reap a character; Sow a character, and you reap a destiny. --Samuel Smiles
Visualizing: Use Pattern Graphic Organizers to Represent Knowledge
Example: Descriptive Pattern Organizer Hurricanes Eyewall Categorized by wind speed Spin counterclockwise In Northern Hemisphere Spin clockwise In Southern Hemisphere Seasonal Move heat from equatorial region to higher latitudes
Example: Time-Sequence Pattern Organizer Space Shuttle Program NASA returned to flight on with successful launch and re-entry of Discovery. Shuttle Discovery was also the first orbiter to fly after the Challenger accident. President Richard M. Nixon announced NASA would proceed with development of reusable low cost space shuttle system. Vision of a reusable space craft to service International Space Station Challenger was lost during launch. The Shuttle program was grounded until. Columbia was lost during re-entry, once again grounding the shuttle program First fully functional orbiter, Columbia launched. 1960s January 2, 1972 April 12, 1981 January 28, 1986 February 1, 2003 July 26, 2005
Example: Process/Cause-Effect Pattern Organizer Vietnam split into North (Communist) and South (Non-Communist) US Troops moved in to fight Vietnam Conflict Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Civil War in Vietnam U.S Support of South Vietnam U.S. Destroyer Maddox attacked in Gulf of Tonkin
Example:Episode Pattern Organizer Santa Maria Pinta Atlantic Ocean Nina Aug. 3, 1492 – Oct. 12, 1492 Aug. 1492 Colonization of the New World Seek a shorter, Western Route to India Discovery of New World Christopher Columbus Queen Isabella Of Spain King Ferdinand of Spain
Example:Problem/Solution Pattern Organizer PROBLEM = AIR POLLUTION
Example:Generalization/Principle Pattern Organizer Characteristics of Mammals Have hair Warm-blooded Nourish young with milk
Example:Concept Pattern Organizer Wind Speed Classification June 1 – Nov. 30 Seasonal Category One – Winds 74-95 mph Hurricanes Category Two – Winds 96-110mph Category Three– 111-130Winds mph Category Four– 131-155Winds mph Weather Terms Category Five – greater than 155Winds mph Hurricane Watch Hurricane Force Winds expected within 36 hours Hurricane Warning Hurricane Force Winds expected within 24 hours
Proficient Thinkers/Readers Also… Synthesize and Retell
Synthesizing and Retelling • Skimming • Mind Mapping • Comparison Guide Map