Formative Communication Vanna Boffo. http://www.unifi.it/fscfo. The Communication. What is the communication? Why is the communication important ? Where is situated the communication?. The Communication. Theoretical aspects
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What is the communication?
Why is the communication important ?
Where is situated the communication?
Communication is the word that shows the exchange of the messages from unicellular to pluricellular animals, from a mechanism to the machines, from a man to another man.
The shapes of the communication are studied from Psychology, from Sociology, from the Theory of Information, from the Linguistic, Cybernatic depending from the fuynctions and the destinations
There are three factors explaining every shape of communication
(Jakobson R., Linguistica generale, Milano, Feltrinelli, 1963, p. 185).
This is very important for understanding the message from the sender to the recipient
The collection of rules, the system of symbols, the sequence of characters must be common at the sender and at the recipient
This must established between the sender and the recipient by a phisical channel and by a psychological channel
Verbal and NonVerbal Communication are different aspects
of a same communicative process
The process of non verbal communication is established
by cultural factors.
The process of non verbal communication is changed by the psychological situation of the subjects in interaction
The communication is between two or more person
The communication is in the inner of self or in the interior dialogue between the person and the self
Each sign is making in corrispondence of common experience or on the base of common cultural sistem
Formal Relationships among signes without any reference to the contents
Analysis of the relationships among the signes by the content. It is important the significance of the word and of the relations among the words
Analysis of the relations among the signes through their use during the life
Linear Model (Sender-message-recipient)
Interactive Model (Pragmatic of the human communication, Linguistic acts, Socio-Linguistic, with feedback)
Dialogical Model (The Communication is circular, the feedback is continuos)
(Watzlawick P., Beavin J. H., Jackson D. D., Pragmatica of the Human Communication, Roma, Astrolabio, 1971)
1. It is not possible no-communication
(The being haven’t an opposite side. Doesn’t exist a no-being). One Cannot Not Communicate
Every behavior is a form of communication. Because behavior does not have a counterpart (there is no anti-behavior), it is impossible not to communicate. Even if communication is being avoided (such as the unconscious use of non-verbals or symptom strategy), that is a form of communication. “Symptom strategy” is ascribing our silence to something beyond our control and makes no communication impossible. Examples of symptom strategy are sleepness, headaches, and drunkenness. Even facial expressions, digital communication, and being silent can be analyzed as communication by a receiver.
1. It is impossible not communicate
To Disqualify the Communication
The Human Communication as the Sign (Warning)
2. The Structure of the Communication
Level of the Content
Level of the Relationships
3. The Punctuation of the Event Sequences
4. Mistake in the translation of the communication
5. Pathological interactions
What is a Paradox?
It is a contraditory statement that comes from correct and coherent precondition
There are three types of paradoxes
Logical/mathematical paradoxes (level of logical syntax)
(level of semantical statements)
(level of pragmatic statements or behavior)
Defensive Strategies or Projective
The process whereby, in a close relationship, as betweeen mother/child or student/teacher, parts of the self may in unconscious phantasy be thought of as being forced into the other person
Bion’stheory is based in large part on his work managing a rehabilitation unit for psychiatric patients in the British Army during World War II and later with small groups at the TavistockClinic. The central concept in Bion’s theory is that in every group, two groups exist: the “work group” and the “basic assumption group”.
The work group is that element of group functioning that is concerned with the primary task or work of the group. The mature work group is aware of its purpose and can define its task. Its members work cooperatively as separate and discrete members who willingly choose to belong to the group because they identify with the interests of the group. This group tests its conclusions, seeks knowledge, and learns from its experience. Bionnotes that this level of maturity in the work group is very rare.
1) The balance between individual needs and the general aims
2) The observance of the diversity
3) The respect of the person/context
4) The building up of the group/institution
5) The growing up of the self (capability and competences of the self)
The conversation: every problem of the insitution must be discussed
The partecipation: every person partecipates to the discussion
According to Bion, each of us has a tendency to enter into the unconscious aspect of group life
to a different degree, just as everyone has a tendency toward differing levels of cooperation within the work group. For effective functioning in groups, it is important for members (particularly leaders and group facilitators) to be aware of which basic assumption group
they lean toward.
… You Must do
Changing the direction
Don’t do this!!
Pathologies of the team communication
B. Wrong Communications
C. Specific Rules
The Conflict can be born from
the mixture of these factors
Team Buildin and Conflict
Describe the feelings and the emotions
Describe the raisons