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Study the map. What were the main geopolitical threats to Chinese security in the 1960s?

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Study the map. What were the main geopolitical threats to Chinese security in the 1960s?.  starter activity. Why did Sino-American relations improve during the 1970s?.  Aims. Assess the implications of the Ussuri River Dispute (1969) and changing ‘ geopolitics ’

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Study the map. What were the main geopolitical threats to Chinese security in the 1960s?

starter activity

why did sino american relations improve during the 1970s

Why did Sino-American relations improve during the 1970s?

 Aims

Assess the implications of the Ussuri River Dispute (1969) and changing ‘geopolitics’

Identify reasons why ‘rapprochement’ occurred between US and China and evaluate the achievements of improved relations

your task
 Your task
  • Explain Mao’s motives for provoking the Ussuri River dispute (1969).
  • What does the dispute tell us about Sino-Soviet relations?
  • How did the dispute bring a change in attitude of China to the USA?

(p.128-129, Phillips)

Border clash at Damansky Island

motives
Motives
  • Damansky Island (1964) - Mao angered USSR by describing the hand over of the island as a preliminary to many Chinese territorial gains angered Khrushchev who cancelled agreement
  • Czechoslovakia (1968) – heightened Chinese fears of Soviet invasion, leading to new policy of ‘active defence’
  • Fear of nuclear strike – China & USSR possessed nuclear weapons; USSR appointed Tolubko to command Soviet forces in Far East
sino soviet relations
Sino-Soviet relations
  • Poor communications between leaders - e.g. Kosygin (Soviet foreign minister) met Zhou Enlai for talks at Beijing Airport; misinterpretations – Czechoslovakia seen to herald new era of Soviet expansionism
  • Nuclear weapons – possession by both sides de-stabilised relations
  • Changing relations - China less subservient to Russia; policy of ‘active defence’ & 1st strike against Soviet troops (2 march 1969)
changes in attitudes towards us
Changes in attitudes towards US
  • Need for an ally against Soviet aggression
  • Fear of encirclement
  • USA seen as less of a threat – Mao thought USA was an empire in decline
your task9
 Your task
  • Using the information on p.129-130 note the reasons for rapprochement between China and America.

Nixon meets Mao during a state visit to Beijing in 1972

rapprochement
Rapprochement
  • Geopolitical considerations – encirclement, tensions with border countries, e.g. Japan, India, Taiwan
  • Vietnam War – increasing US involvement in region
  • Ideological conflict with USSR - Mao’s dislike of Soviet revisionism, Mao viewed USA as a ‘declining power’, therefore less of a military or economic threat
your task11
 Your task
  • Read Nixon’s response to Sino-US rapprochement in his Report to Congress (1971). Highlight in green evidence which suggests he genuinely wishes to improve relations with China and evidence in red that he is driving a wedge between China and the USSR.
your task13
 Your task
  • Study the information on p.130-1 and note what closer relations achieved for:
    • a) China
    • b) USA
    • c) Both countries?
  • Your teacher will give you some cards, sort them into achievements for the US, China or both
  • Extension. Write a judgement paragraph explaining who benefited most
achievements for usa
Achievements for USA
  • China strengthened ties with E European communist countries - e.g. Yugoslavia and Romania
  • Weakened China’s relations with other communist countries – Albania criticised China for betraying Revolution; N Vietnam angered by China’s support of USA
  • Created opportunity for Détente – links with China used to force USSR to negotiate
achievements for china
Achievements for China
  • Victory for Chinese diplomacy - ‘Nixon and Kissinger came to (Mao’s) study to listen to his teachings’ (Chen)
  • US relations with Far East allies weakened– criticism of S Vietnam govt; ‘Two Chinas’ policy diminished support for Taiwan
  • Diplomatic recognition for China at UN
  • Strengthened Mao’s domestic position - supporters like Zhou Enlai grew in popularity, opponents of Mao, e.g. Lin Biao removed
achievements for both
Achievements for both
  • Ping pong diplomacy - channels of diplomacy opened up, e.g. Kissinger met with Zho Enlai 6x in July 1971
  • Trade & travel restrictions relaxed – trade between 2 countries increased from $5m to $500m
  • Undermining USSR – China & US expressed opposition to any expansion in Asia-Pacific region – tacit criticism of USSR
your task17
 Your task
  • Copy these phrases onto slips of paper:
  • Ideological differences
  • Personalities
  • National interests
  • Draw a line on a piece of paper and place the cards on the appropriate location. Jot down 2 pieces of evidence to support your judgements

This was the definitive cause of the Sino-Soviet split

This played very little part in the Sino-Soviet split

your task18
 Your task
  • On the computer, working in pairs write a paragraph to answer this question: “How far was the Sino-Soviet Split of the late 1960s the result of ideological differences between the communist powers?”
extension task
 Extension task
  • Read p. 149-152 in Gaddis, ‘Cold War’ and take notes on reasons for rapprochement he suggests.
  • Read p.310-14 in Isaacs, ‘Cold War’ and explain how Ping Pong became part of international diplomacy
plenary
 Plenary
  • Paste the photograph of Mao meeting Nixon in your notes, and annotate with thought bubbles. What would the US gain?
homework
 Homework
  • “How far was the Sino-Soviet Split of the late 1960s the result of ideological differences between the two communist powers?”
  • Complete the research topic on p.135.
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