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Certification Training. Pork Quality Assurance (PQA) Plus®. Implementing PQA Plus® will help a producer maintain or create: A high quality pork product for the consumer from a food safety standpoint A safe and productive environment for the swine, you and your employees

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pork quality assurance pqa plus
Pork Quality Assurance (PQA) Plus®
  • Implementing PQA Plus® will help a producer maintain or create:
    • A high quality pork product for the consumer from a food safety standpoint
    • A safe and productive environment for the swine, you and your employees
    • Increase profitability as an efficient and responsible producer
we care
We Care:
  • Ethical Principles:
    • Produce safe food
    • Protect and promote animal well-being
    • Ensure practices to protect public health
    • Safeguard natural resources
    • Provide a work environment that is safe
    • Contribute to a better quality of life in our communities
gpp 1
GPP # 1

Use an Appropriate Veterinary/Client/Patient Relationship (VCPR) as the Basis for Medication Decision Making

objectives for gpp 1
Objectives for GPP#1
  • Describe how a veterinarian is vital to the medication decision-making process
  • Identify the three categories of approved drug distribution
  • Define extra-label drug use (ELDU)
  • Distinguish examples of legal and illegal ELDU
  • Define drug compounding and who can compound drugs
  • List examples of residue avoidance practices
veterinarian client patient relationship vcpr
Veterinarian/Client/Patient Relationship (VCPR)
  • The veterinarian:
    • Assumes the role of making medical judgments for animals and owner
    • Has sufficient access and knowledge of the herd/animals
    • Is responsible for providing continued care
  • The owner/client/caretaker:
    • Follows the veterinarian’s instructions
    • Provides access and documentation
veterinarian client patient relationship vcpr1
Veterinarian/Client/Patient Relationship (VCPR)
  • Key veterinary activities for a VCPR:
    • Development of herd health plan to include appropriate vaccination and treatment recommendations
      • Direct use of pharmaceutical products
      • Extra-Label Drug Use
      • Appropriate vaccination use
    • Participate in record keeping
    • Provide information and support in the case of an adverse event
    • Be available to address herd health changes
extra label drug use amduca
Extra-label Drug Use - AMDUCA
  • Federal Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act (AMDUCA) of 1994
    • Permits extra-label drug use by veterinarian with a VCPR
    • Risks are increased, extended withdrawal times may be necessary
    • Treatment records should be kept by the producer for 1 year after the animal is treated
    • Does not include medicated feeds, including VFD feeds
extra label drug use situations
Extra-label Drug Use - Situations

Examples of extra-label use include:

  • Increasing the dosage
  • Changing the frequency or route of administration
  • Changing the duration of treatment
  • Treating a disease or condition not on the label
  • Changing species or life stage on the label
extra label drug use keys to remember
Extra-label Drug Use – Keys to Remember

What is required of producers for extra-label use of medications?

  • An established VCPR for the herd must exist
  • Records showing the instructions from the veterinarian directing the extra-label drug use
  • Documentation in the treatment records showing the application of the veterinarian’s instructions
distribution and use of approved animal drugs
Distribution and Use of Approved Animal Drugs
  • Animal Drug Distribution Methods
    • Over-The-Counter (OTC)
    • Prescription (Rx)
    • Veterinary Feed Directive (VFD)
issues with compounding drugs
Issues with Compounding Drugs
  • Compounding is the mixing of two or more FDA-approved drugs
  • Withdrawal times are difficult to estimate
  • AMDUCA also allows a veterinarian with a VCPR to compound drugs for the client
  • Veterinarian assumes responsibility for safety, efficacy and withdrawal time of compounded drug
  • Producers and distributers of animal health product may NOT compound drugs
residue avoidance and testing
Residue Avoidance and Testing

Residue Avoidance – follow all label instructions on withdrawal periods and dosage.

If the residue status of an animal or group is in doubt, conduct a residue test.

This may be due to:

  • ID tags or markings missing
  • Accidental animal access to medicated feed
  • Lost or damaged records

Be prepared with a service provider’s information and emergency response plan


“Local News at 5” – Interview Activity

Answer the questions:

What is extra-label drug use?

What is required for legal extra-label use?

Why is the veterinarian vital in making extra-label use decisions?

sample test items for gpp 1
Sample Test Items for GPP#1
  • _____ medications can be purchased by anyone from places such as farm supply stores, animal health salespersons, catalogs and veterinary clinics.
    • A. Over-the-Counter
    • B. Prescription
    • C. Extra-label
    • D. Veterinary Feed Directive
  • Using a veterinarian as the basis for medication decision making is part of a(n) _______.
    • A. FIFRA
    • B. AMDUCA
    • C. VCPR
    • D. USCFR
gpp 2
GPP #2

Establish and Implement an Efficient and Effective Health Management Plan

objectives for gpp 2
Objectives for GPP#2
  • Identify the four components of a health management plan
  • Identify the value of a VCPR
  • Summarize the purpose of a herd health plan
  • Define biosecurity
  • Using an example, examine both external and internal biosecurity measures
  • Recognize effective measures of rodent and pest control
  • Identify the plans that should be developed for foreign animal disease and agroterrorism awareness, reporting, and prevention
health management plan
Health Management Plan
  • Four components of a health management plan
    • Development of and maintenance of a Vet-Client Patient Relationship (VCPR)
    • Development of an individualized herd health plan
    • Development of a herd-level biosecurity plan
    • Foreign animal disease and agro-terrorism prevention
1 development of and maintenance of a vet client patient relationship vcpr
1. Development of and Maintenance of a Vet/Client/Patient Relationship (VCPR)
  • Benefits to the producer
    • Active involvement in herd health
    • Provide a professional outside view
    • Opportunity to plan and make informed management adjustments.
2 development of an individualized herd health plan
2. Development of an Individualized Herd Health Plan
  • Two major purposes
    • Address potential and current health challenges
    • Help prevent diseases from entering into your herd
  • Plans may:
    • Include periodic health checks
    • Be tailored for a herd and/or specific diseases of interest
3 development of a herd level biosecurity p lan
3. Development of a Herd-level Biosecurity Plan

Biosecurity is a management measure used to prevent the transmission of diseases and disease agents on the farm.

  • External Biosecurity: keeping disease out of the herd
  • Internal Biosecurity: preventing disease movement within the herd
  • Rodent and Pest Control: preventing compromise of external and internal biosecurity measures
4 foreign animal d isease fad agro terrorism a wareness reporting and prevention
4. Foreign Animal Disease (FAD) & Agro-terrorism Awareness, Reporting, and Prevention
  • FADs are a very serious concern for the entire industry and food supply
  • Contact your herd veterinarian if you have questions or concerns
  • Know and follow the plans your operation should have in place to prevent and report FADs

“Call and Answer” Review

What are the 4 components of a health management plan?

Why is a VCPR valuable?

What is the difference between external and internal biosecurity? Give an example of each.

What is FAD and why is it an important issue?

What are the four elements of rodent and pest control?

What is the benefit of a herd health plan?

sample test items for gpp 2
Sample Test Items for GPP#2
  • True or False? Through a VCPR, knowing the disease status of a herd can help your veterinarian create a specific health plan to help minimize the impact of a disease.
    • True
    • False
  • A herd health plan is designed to address potential and current health challenges and to help prevent _________ from entering into your herd.
    • A. low performers
    • B. flies
    • C. diseases
    • D. stress
gpp 3
GPP #3

Use Antibiotics Responsibly

objectives of gpp 3
Objectives of GPP#3
  • Define the three purposes of antibiotic use in pork production.
  • Identify the five principles for responsible antibiotic use.
  • Recognize the components of each element.
responsible use of a ntibiotics
Responsible Use of Antibiotics

The basis for using antibiotics responsibly during pork production involves evaluating their use to protect animal health, optimize effectiveness and minimize the risk of developing antibiotic resistance, thereby protecting public health.

antibiotic purposes
Antibiotic Purposes
  • Three antibiotic purposes:
    • Treatment of Illness
    • Control or Prevention of Disease
    • Improve Nutritional Efficiency
principles for antibiotic u se
Principles for Antibiotic Use

Take appropriate steps to decrease the need for the application of antibiotics.

Principle I.

Assess the advantages and disadvantages of all uses of antibiotics.

Principle II.

Use antibiotics only when they provide measurable benefits.

Principle III.

Fully implement the management practices described for responsible use of animal health products into daily operations.

Principle IV.

Have a working veterinarian/client/patient relationship and follow the responsible antibiotic use guidelines.

Principle V.

principle 1

Take appropriate steps to decrease the need for the application of antibiotics.

Principle I.

Principle 1
  • Preventive strategies can help decrease the need for antibiotics
    • Biosecurity programs
    • Appropriate animal husbandry
    • Hygiene
    • Routine health monitoring
    • Vaccination programs
principle 2

Assess the advantages and disadvantages of all uses of antibiotics.

Principle II.

Principle 2
  • Other management options should be considered
  • Treat only as long as needed
  • Review the need for continuing preventative antibiotic therapy
  • Consider other impacts of using antibiotics
principle 3

Use antibiotics only when they provide measurable benefits.

Principle III.

Principle 3 –
  • Assess measureable benefits of all uses of antibiotics
  • Assessing measureable benefits of use for nutritional efficiency should be based on scientific data
principle iv compliance

Fully implement the management practices described for responsible use of animal health products into daily operations.

Principle IV.

Principle IV - Compliance
  • Complete PQA Plus® and fully implement GPPs
  • Follow FDA Compliance Policy Guide 615.200
    • Provides regulatory guidance for the development of cases resulting from the use of animal drugs contrary to label directions (“off label use") by non- veterinarians in food-producing animals
    • Also provides guidance on measures that can be taken by non-veterinarians to ensure proper drug use and avoid illegal residues
principle v

Have a working veterinarian/client/patient relationship and follow the responsible antibiotic use guidelines.

Principle V.

Principle V
  • Guideline A. Use professional veterinary input as the basis for all antibiotic decision-making.
  • Guideline B. Antibiotics should be used for treatment only when there is an appropriate clinical diagnosis.
  • Guideline C. Limit antibiotic treatment to ill or at-risk animals, treating the fewest animals indicated.
  • Guideline D. Antibiotics that are important in treating antibiotic resistant infections in human or veterinary medicine should be used in animals only after careful review and reasonable justification.
  • Guideline E. Mixing together injectable or water medications, including antibiotics, by producers is illegal.
  • Guideline F: Minimize environmental exposure through proper handling and disposal of all animal health products, including antibiotics.

“Antibiotics Scenarios” Review

Review the scenario on each card and identify which principle best applies to the situation.

As a group be ready to discuss your response.

sample test items for gpp 3
Sample Test Items for GPP#3
  • The basis for using antibiotics responsibly during pork production involves evaluating their use to protect animal health, optimize effectiveness, and:
    • A. Minimize the risk of developing antibiotic resistance
    • B. Elimination of all bacteria on the farm
    • C. Decrease the effectiveness of future antibiotic use
    • D. Improve meat color and firmness
  • True or False? The following is a principle for antibiotic use: Use antibiotics as often as possible to ensure maximum benefit.
    • A. True
    • B. False
gpp 4
GPP #4

Properly Store and Administer Animal Health Products

objectives of gpp 4
Objectives of GPP#4
  • Identify the responsibilities of properly administering products
  • Determine the key components of drug labels and why this information is vital
  • Identify how to properly maintain drug inventory and usage records
  • Identify the three methods of administering medications
  • Distinguish between the five methods of injectable medication
  • Discuss the key elements for a needle standard operating procedure (SOP)
responsibilities of properly administering animal health products
Responsibilities of Properly Administering Animal Health Products
  • Read, understand and follow label directions when giving any medication.
  • Devise a medication record and animal or group ID system that enables all caretakers to know the medication status of animals prepared for harvest.
  • Identify all treated animals.
  • Keep records for making judgments about marketing animals that have been treated.
  • Use medication records to determine that withdrawal times have been completed.
parts of a drug l abel
Parts of a Drug Label
  • Trade name
  • Active ingredient
  • Indications
  • Dosage and directions for use
  • Precautions
  • Warnings
  • Withdrawal times
  • Manufacturer’s lot number
  • Expiration date
drug inventory and storage
Drug Inventory and Storage
  • Keep and maintain a drug inventory.
  • Follow drug storage instruction
  • Avoid the practice of withdrawing an injectable medication from the original glass vial and storing it in a syringe for later use
administering medication
Administering Medication
  • Orally- Given through the mouth, and can be mixed with water and/or feed
  • Topically - Application to skin
  • Injection – Five possible options
five methods of injectable administration
Five Methods of Injectable Administration
  • In the muscle (intramuscular – IM)
  • Under the skin (subcutaneous – SQ)
  • In the abdominal cavity (intraperitoneal – IP)
  • In the vein (intravenous – IV)
  • In the nasal passages (intranasal – IN)
standard operating procedure sop for needle breakage
Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Needle Breakage
  • Needle breakage is an important issue for the industry.
  • You should have an SOP addressing this issue.
  • Considerations:
    • Broken needle prevention plan
    • Identification of animals that are at risk or carrying a broken needle
    • Communication with your packer
    • Disposal of sharps

“Be the Trainer” Exercise

  • Once assigned a group and SOP consideration, read the practices in the GPP handbook and be ready to share three key points and an example with the other groups.
    • Broken needle prevention plan
    • Identification of animals that are at risk or carrying a broken needle
    • Communications with your packer
    • Disposal of sharps
sample test items for gpp 4
Sample Test Items for GPP#4
  • Where can the producer readily locate precautions and warnings related to antibiotic withdrawal times?
    • A. Pork Safety Handbook
    • B. All of the responses are correct
    • C. The sow card
    • D. The product label
  • _____ medications are those that are given through the mouth.
    • A. Injectable
    • B. Topical
    • C. Oral
    • D. Prescription
gpp 5
GPP #5

Following Proper Feed Processing Protocols

objectives of gpp 5
Objectives of GPP#5
  • Identify the goals of feed manufacturing
  • Differentiate between the cGMP guidelines for medicated and non-medicated feeds
  • Explain the special consideration regarding the feeding of ruminant-derived products
  • Using an example, explain the considerations when calculating the amount of medicated feed to add to the mixer
goals of feed m anufacturing
Goals of Feed Manufacturing
  • Meets specifications for nutritional composition
  • Meets the desired medication level, if appropriate
  • Is free of contaminants, or contaminants are below established tolerances or action levels
current good manufacturing p ractices cgmp
Current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP)
  • Provide reasonable assurance that the feed is manufactured accurately
  • There are cGMPs for all feeds and additional cGMPs for medicated feeds.
  • General Categories:
      • Buildings and grounds
      • Equipment
      • Workspace and storage
      • Quality control
      • Labeling
      • Recordkeeping
      • Employee Training
additional keys on feed p rocessing p rotocols
Additional Keys on Feed Processing Protocols
  • Ruminant-derived products
    • Measures must be taken to keep cattle, sheep, goats and other ruminants from having access to hog feed if it might contain ruminant-derived products.
  • Mixing medicated feed
    • Proper drug concentrations are important to:
      • Achieve desired benefits of the drug
      • Prevent adverse health effects or violative residues
  • Recordkeeping
    • Producers retain records for two years from date of order. Veterinarians keep VFD order 2 years after animal is treated.

“Highlight the Differences” Review

Highlight two additional requirements in the cGMPs for medicated feeds.

  • Use the GPP handbook
  • Work with a partner
  • Research and report on the area(s) assigned to you by the trainer:
      • Equipment
      • Workspace and storage
      • Quality control
      • Labeling
      • Recordkeeping
sample test items for gpp 5
Sample Test Items for GPP#5
  • One goal of feed manufacturing is to meet the specifications for ______________ needed for animal growth and development.
    • A. exercise requirement
    • B. safe handling
    • C. nutritional composition
    • D. identification procedures
  • A set of guidelines for processing medicated feed is known as:
    • A. cGMPs
    • B. Linder Guidelines
    • C. PTSDRs
    • D. ABCs of Medicated Feed
gpp 6
GPP #6

Establish Effective Swine Identification, Medication Records and Withdrawal Times

objectives of gpp 6
Objectives of GPP#6
  • Determine the importance of having an effective identification plan
  • Identify the three key components of the Swine ID Plan
  • Discuss why medication records are important
  • Determine the key elements of maintaining mediation records and the key information for tracking treatments
  • Define withdrawal time
  • Calculate a withdrawal time
  • Determine additional sources, other than the label, of drug use information
swine i dentification
Swine Identification
  • Records are critical to ensuring animal health and integrity of food supply
  • Without identification, record keeping is nearly impossible
  • Swine ID Plan
    • Initiative for industry standards with three key components:
      • Premises identification
      • Animal identification
      • Animal tracing
swine id key c omponent 1 premises i dentification
Swine ID, Key Component #1: Premises Identification
  • Registering a location of where livestock are:
    • Raised
    • Housed
    • Pass through during commerce
  • Locations are given a standardized 7-digit PIN number
swine id key component 2 i ndividual i dentification
Swine ID, key component #2: individual identification
  • Animals must be identified individually or as part of a group or lot.
  • Breeding animals entering harvest channels must have individual ear tags bearing the location PIN
  • While on-farm, individual animals may be identified with:
    • ID cards
    • Paint marks
    • Tattoos
    • Ear tags
    • Ear notches
swine id key component 3 a nimal t racing
Swine ID, Key Component #3: Animal Tracing
  • Accomplished by keeping and maintaining animal movement records
    • animal's or group's identification number
    • PIN of the sending and receiving premises
    • the date of movement
    • number of head moved
    • the reason for movement
  • Must be maintained three years after animal leaves premises
    • consistent with 9CFR 71.19 and Swine ID program standards
medication records
Medication Records
  • Primary reason: to make sure withdrawal times have elapsed before marketing animals.
    • Provide documentation that demonstrates a drug was used properly
    • Assure packers of proper procedures
    • Can be a useful management tool
  • Records must be kept for 12 months following last day of treatment
fda compliance policy guide cpg 7125 37
FDA Compliance Policy Guide (CPG 7125.37)

Minimum expectations of medical records, per FDA guidance

Suggested medical records with additional information

withdrawal times
Withdrawal Times
  • The withdrawal time is the period required for the medication to be metabolized, broken-down, or excreted so that the level remaining in the body of the animal is below the level established as safe for humans.
  • With withdrawal times, consider:
    • Calculating withdrawal time
    • Other sources of drug information
    • Medication information such as compatibility

Scenario Review

A drug with a 3-day withdrawal time is administered to pen of pigs through medicated feed. You last filled the feeders with medicated feed at 7 a.m. on Tuesday. At 3 p.m. on Friday you are asked if that pen is cleared to be shipped for harvest. What is your response?

A drug with a 5-day withdrawal is administered by IM injection at 4 p.m. on Wednesday, September 10. You are completing the medical record. What is the date and time you enter in the field, “Withdrawal Time Completed?”

sample test items for gpp 6
Sample Test Items for GPP#6
  • A swine identification plan should include ___________.
    • A. Premises identification
    • B. Animal identification
    • C. All of the responses are correct
    • D. Animal tracing
  • The minimum standards of medication and treatment records defined by the FDA require ______ to be documented.
    • A. The date of administration
    • B. The expected market weight of the animal treated
    • C. From whom the drug was purchased
    • D. All of the responses are correct
gpp 7
GPP #7

Environmental Stewardship

objectives of gpp 7
Objectives of GPP#7
  • Identify the key environmental management practices
  • Discuss the key elements for each environmental management practice
implementation of environmental p ractices
Implementation of Environmental Practices

The goal of environmental stewardship is to protect our natural resources (water, air and land) in all of our production practices.

  • General site conditions
  • Buildings
  • Manure Management
  • Mortality
  • Emergency action plan
  • Inspections

“Draw and Describe” Review

Review the list of Environmental Management Practices listed in GPP#7

Choose one and using the notecard on your table draw a picture that represents that practice

In small groups, go around and guess the practice depicted in each person’s drawing

sample test items for gpp 7
Sample Test Items for GPP#7
  • True or False? The goal of environmental stewardship is to protect our natural resources (water, air and land) in all of our production practices.
    • A. True
    • B. False
  • Which of the following is an environmental management practice area?
    • A. Employee performance management
    • B. Manure management
    • C. Feed manufacturing
    • D. All of the responses are correct
gpp 8
GPP #8

Workplace Safety

objectives of gpp 8
Objectives of GPP#8
  • Determine how every individual involved in the operation is responsible for a safe workplace
  • Discuss the four steps to controlling on farm hazards.
  • Identify the essential elements of an adequate emergency action plan.
  • Identify key prevention techniques for each major safety area
  • Assess the safety procedures to determine if the plan is adequate enough to prevent a workplace accident
safety is everyone s responsibility
Safety is Everyone’s Responsibility

For a safety program to work, it has to be everyone’s responsibility. If any person does not take personal responsibility for working in and maintaining a safe work area, that person puts himself and others at risk.

  • Everyone working in the barn
  • Owners/operating managers
  • Production managers
controlling hazards
Controlling hazards

Four basic strategies, in order of preference:

  • Eliminating the hazard from the method, the material, the facility or the machine
  • Abating the hazard by limiting exposure or controlling it at its source
  • Training personnel to be aware of the hazard and to follow safe work procedures to avoid it
  • Prescribing personal protective equipment (PPE) for protecting employees against the hazard

Most preferred

emergency action plan eap
Emergency Action Plan (EAP)
  • An emergency action plan (EAP) will prepare producers to take immediate action when someone is hurt, a fire starts, tornados are imminent or other foreseeable crisis situations
  • At minimum, an EAP should include:
    • Telephone numbers for owner, veterinarian, electric power company, fire and police
    • Address of the facility

Fire prevention and safety

Hearing health and safety

Lockout/Tagout program

Personal protective equipment

Respiratory health and safety

Hazard communication plan

Machine guarding

Electrical safety

Slips, trips and falls

Safe lifting

Personal hygiene

Needle sticks and cuts

Safe animal handling

“Can I Get Your Attention?” Activity

Review the list of safety procedures and plans in the Training Manual (GPP #8) and identify three areas that should get more attention in your building.

sample test items for gpp 8
Sample Test Items for GPP#8
  • True or False? An emergency action plan (EAP), at minimum, must include the address of the facility.
    • A. True
    • B. False
  • The most preferred strategy for controlling workplace hazards is to __________ the hazard from the method, material, the facility, or machine.
    • A. attempt to avoid
    • B. maximize
    • C. eliminate
    • D. increase
gpp 9
GPP #9

Provide Proper Swine Care to Improve Well-being

objectives of gpp 9
Objectives of GPP#9
  • Identify the main types of recordkeeping to help ensure animal well-being
  • Explain the main components of each
  • Perform and document daily observations of animals in their care
  • Describe the farms emergency action plan
  • Operate the site’s emergency backup system
  • Determine the thermal comfort of pigs in their care
  • Explain the importance of good air quality for the health and well-being of the animal
  • Identify the maintenance required for pens, floors, alleyways, chute, feeders, and waterers
  • Describe the different body condition scores
objectives of gpp 9 cont
Objectives of GPP#9, cont.
  • List the factors that constitute adequate body space
  • Identify the main elements of animal evaluation
  • Explain the main components of each
  • Identify the key elements of a euthanasia plan
  • Identify the practices/techniques for a humane euthanasia
  • Define timely euthanasia
  • Recognize common instinctive behaviors of swine
  • Determine proper handling practices and techniques for various size and stages of swine development
  • Discuss the factors that constitute willful acts of abuse
e thical responsibility for well being
Ethical Responsibility for Well-Being

Every caretaker has an ethical responsibility to protect and promote the well-being of the pigs in his or her care by:

  • Providing feed, water and an environment that promotes the well-being of our animals.
  • Providing proper care, handling and transportation for pigs at each stage of life.
  • Protecting pig health and providing appropriate treatment, including veterinary care when needed.
  • Using approved practices to euthanize, in a timely manner, those sick or injured pigs that fail to respond to care and treatment.
recordkeeping for swine well being
Recordkeeping for Swine Well-being
  • Veterinary/Client/Patient Relationship (VCPR)
  • Medication and treatment records (at minimum)
    • The animal(s) that were treated – animals can be identified as a group when multiple animals are treated.
    • The date(s) of treatment, including last date of administration.
    • The drug(s) administered.
    • The route of administration.
    • The name or initials of the person who administered each drug.
    • The amount of each drug administered.
    • The withdrawal time prior to harvest.
recordkeeping for swine well being cont
Recordkeeping for Swine Well-being, cont.
  • Caretaker training program including:
    • Euthanasia
    • Animal handling
    • Husbandry
  • Documented Daily Observations:
    • Feed and water availability
    • Seriously ill, non-ambulatory or dead animals
    • Treatment Pen
emergency support
Emergency Support
  • Written emergency action plan (EAP)
    • Covers various emergencies – fire, weather, power outage, etc…
    • Should include: Address of facility and telephone numbers for owner, veterinarian, electrical power company, fire and police
  • Emergency detection system
    • Alarms for power failure, drastic temperature changes
    • Facility location may allow for visual detection
  • Emergency backup system
    • Automated intervention in the event of a mechanical ventilation failure
    • Test backup system regularly
  • Air Quality
    • Control contaminants: dust, ammonia and others
  • Temperature Control
    • Pig behavior is a good indicator of thermal comfort
    • Heating/cooling provisions should accommodate needs
  • Should be in proper working order and not cause injury
  • If more than 1% of animals fall during handling, a problem needs corrected

Pens, Floors & Alleys

  • Broken or missing cleats should be repaired or replaced
  • Moving parts should be inspected and maintained regularly


basic needs feed water
Basic Needs-Feed & Water
  • Out-of-feed events can negatively impact pigs’ well-being
  • Feed should be readily available to reduce competition and fighting
  • Both flow and quality are critical to well-being
  • Must be in good state of repair, not cause injury, and be readily available



body condition score bcs

1 2 3 4 5

Body Condition Score (BCS)
  • Key indicator of management and animal well-being

Taken from “Assessing Sow Body Condition” by R.D.Coffey, G.R. Parker, and K.M. Laurent (ASC-158; 1999)

body space requirements
Body Space – Requirements
  • Easily lie down fully on its side (full lateral recumbency) without having to lie on another pig and be able to easily stand back up.
  • Lie down without the head having to rest on a raised feeder.
  • A pig housed in a stall must be able to lie down fully on its side and easily stand back up without the head having to rest on a raised feeder and the rear quarters coming in contact with the back of the stall at the same time.
animal evaluation
Animal Evaluation
  • Production Performance
    • Average Daily Gain
    • Farrowing Rate
    • Mortality
  • Physical Evaluation
    • Lameness
    • Skin lesions (abscesses, wounds)
    • Shoulder sores
    • Rectal prolapses
    • Hernias
  • Swine Behavior
    • Tail Biting
    • Fear in presence of people
  • Timely euthanasia
    • Goal: minimize animal pain or distress
    • Definitions of “timely” based on situation
      • No prospect for recovery after two days of intensive care
      • Severely injured or non-ambulatory pigs with the inability to recover
      • Immobilized with body condition score of 1
      • Pigs with large hernias that touch the ground or cause difficulty walking
    • Requires trained personnel and functional equipment
  • Should have a written euthanasia plan that is easily accessible
safe animal handling overview
Safe Animal Handling – Overview
  • Proven pig-handling and movement practices will contribute to good well-being of the pig and a safe work environment for the handler.
  • Many negative consequences when pigs are improperly handled
    • Swine well-being
    • Productivity
    • Food product quality
    • Worker safety
  • Know animal instincts and use proper handling procedures
safe animal handling instincts flight zone
Safe Animal Handling – Instincts: Flight Zone
  • Flight Zone
  • Point of Balance
  • Blind Spot
safe animal handling instincts following herding
Safe Animal Handling – Instincts: Following & Herding
  • Pigs like to
    • Stay in visual/physical contact
    • Follow each other
  • An advantage when moving pigs
    • Up or down ramp/chute
    • Through hallway/alleyway
    • Into or out of a pen or room
safe animal handling instincts reacting to changes in the environment
Safe Animal Handling – Instincts: Reacting to Changes in the Environment
  • Pigs typically slow, stop or change direction when they encounter something new or unfamiliar
  • Handler’s intentions are not instinctively understood
  • Pigs experiencing regular, positive interactions with people are typically
    • Less fearful of handlers
    • Easier to handle
proper handling
Proper Handling
  • Handlers should:
    • Act calmly
    • Avoid sudden movement, loud noises, other distractions
    • Move pigs at their normal walking pace
    • Avoid aggressive handling
  • Aggressive handling includes things such as:
    • Overuse, or improper use, of electric prods
    • Loud noises and yelling
    • Moving pigs too fast
    • Moving too many pigs per group
    • Overcrowding them in chutes, ramps and alleyways
    • Rough physical contact
proper handling key points
Proper Handling Key Points
  • Piglets should not be tossed or thrown, this is considered mishandling
  • Piglets should be picked up under the rib cage or by grabbing the rear leg above the hock
  • Pigs should be moved in groups large enough to be efficient for the system but small enough to be safe for pigs and handlers
  • Willful acts of neglect or abuse are unacceptable

“Handling Pigs of Various Types and Sizes” Activity

Find and list 3-5 additional key points that you think are critical for new hires to know.

Breeding Stock


Nursery and Finisher Pigs

Group Sizes

Non-ambulatory Pigs

tools and equipment
Tools and Equipment
  • Tools as
    • Physical barrier (e.g., sorting board)
    • Visual barrier (e.g., matador’s cape)
    • Auditory stimulus (e.g., rattle/shaker paddle)
    • Visual stimulus (e.g., nylon flag)
  • Use the right tool for the right situation
  • Electric prods should be a last resort
    • Avoid or minimize use
    • Never prod sensitive areas
    • Should not be the primary handling tool
willful acts of abuse
Willful Acts of Abuse

Willful acts of neglect or abuse are unacceptable and are not tolerable

  • Willful abuse and neglect are defined as acts outside accepted production practices that intentionally cause pain and suffering including, but not limited to:
    • Intentionally applying prods to sensitive parts of the animal such as the eyes, ears, nose, genitals, or rectum.
    • Malicious hitting, kicking, or beating of an animal.
    • Purposeful failure to provide minimal food, water, and care that results in significant harm or death to animals.
sample test items for gpp 9
Sample Test Items for GPP#9
  • The best way to fully assess the pigs’ environment and health is to ____________.
    • A. have a plan for medical treatments
    • B. conduct annual performance reviews
    • C. conduct daily observations
    • D. ensure automatic monitoring systems are functioning
  • Keeping waterers and feeders in proper maintenance is key in allowing adequate space in order to ___________.
    • A. decrease competition
    • B. increase competition
    • C. decrease body temperature
    • D. increase body temperature
gpp 10
GPP #10

Utilize Tools for Continuous Improvement

objectives of gpp 10
Objectives of GPP#10
  • Determine the role caretaker training plays in animal well-being and herd health
  • Identify the steps of the PTSDR method
  • Recognize the elements of documenting training
  • Describe how the animal well-being assessment works
  • State how an action plan is used to improve animal well-being and production practices
  • Summarize how the third-party evaluation process operates
training animal caretakers
Training Animal Caretakers
  • Continuous improvement
    • Advances in science and technology
    • Updated Good Production Practices
  • Caretaker training contributes to animal well-being . Examples from this session:
    • Medical treatment records
    • Animal evaluation
    • Feed processing protocols
    • Husbandry, handling and euthanasia
  • Many other benefits of training
ptsdr an effective training method
PTSDR: An Effective Training Method
  • Note: All training of animal caretakers should be documented
  • how


  • ell








Focus on the objectives to achieve with a training program

Share the information needed to complete the task

Demonstrate how to complete a specific task

Allow individuals to practice the task

Evaluate performance and give useful feedback

conducting animal well being assessments
Conducting Animal Well-being Assessments
  • Conduct a PQA Plus Site Assessment to set benchmarks and measure animal well-being
  • Review results with your veterinarian and/or PQA Plus Advisor
  • Complete a PQA Plus site assessment every three years
  • Complete an internal site assessment annually
develop and implement an action plan
Develop and Implement an Action Plan
  • Once a site assessment occurs, develop an action plan to address areas needed for improvement/correction
  • For areas that can be addressed relatively quickly, document what action was taken to correct the issue.
  • For areas that require extra capital or time to correct, document a detailed description of how you plan to correct the issue and a timeline for expected implmentation.
  • 3rd Party evaluations (audits)
    • Evaluator should have no conflict of interest
    • Auditor role is not advisory
  • The PQA Plus third-party verification is anevaluation of theeffectiveness and implementation of the PQA Plus program principles
sample test items for gpp 10
Sample Test Items for GPP#10
  • True or False? Caretakers that are trained on how to look for trends in medical records of animals can help identify strategies to improve herd health.
    • A. True
    • B. False
  • In which stage of the PTSDR method does the trainer discuss the information needed in order to complete the task?
    • A. Prepare
    • B. Show
    • C. Do
    • D. Tell