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The Roles and Relationship Between Classroom and Clinical Teaching to the New Educational Standards Neil Curtis, EdD, ATC Department of Sports Medicine West Chester University West Chester, Pennsylvania
Objective • To help reshape our current educational theories and integrate them into the new educational standards proposed by the NATA Educational Council and the CAAHEP’s Joint Review Committee- Athletic Training (JRC-AT)
Background Current practice: • 800 clinical hour requirement • Various clinical environments • Meet JRC-AT standards • Meet NATABOC requirements
Influences on Education • NATA Athletic Training Educational Competencies (3rd edition) • Guide for course structure and content • Athletic Training Clinical Proficiencies • Included in competencies • The proficiencies can be downloaded from the web (www.cewl.com)
Influences on Education Clinical Education Guidelines (ClinEdGs)*: • Qualitative system (not counting hours) • Clinical performance expectations (outcomes must be measurable and documented over time) • Evaluated by Approved Clinical Instructor (ACI)
Influences on Education Clinical Education Guidelines (ClinEdGs)*: • Two academic years (minimum) • Taught, practiced and evaluated over time • Students assigned to ACI *See www.cewl.com for Buxton and Foreman’s 1999 Kansas City clinical education presentation
Influences on Education JRC-AT proposed standards and guidelines related to clinical education: • Incorporation of the ACI and clinical supervisor • Changes in clinical instruction sites and format • Outcome assessment changes
Influences on Education • NATA Board of Certification, Inc.*- • 800 hour clinical experience requirement ^ ^ Ed Council has proposed deleting the 800 hour requirement • Minimum of two academic years^^ ^^ Ed Council (and JRC-AT draft 2) also requires minimum of 2 academic years (4 semesters, 6 quarters) *From NATABOC.ORG web page 6/19/00
Influences on Education • NATA Board of Certification, Inc.- • Role Delineation (RD) Study, 4th ed.**: • Used to construct the certification examination **The NATA Athletic Training Educational Competencies describes educational content; the RD is the testing blueprint. The RD is covered in the competencies
Roles • Athletic Training Program Director • Clinical Education Coordinator • Athletic Training Faculty • Classroom and Laboratory
Roles • On-campus ACI • Off-campus ACI • Non-ATC instructors (not ACI) • Clinical supervisor (not ACI) • Athletic training students
Program Director • Draft 2: I.B.1.a.(1) (a)- “accountability… of all aspects of the athletic training educational program.” • Draft 2: I.B.1.a.(1) (b)- “appropriate experience … in the clinical supervision of student athletic trainers. …Minimum of three years experience as an NATABOC certified athletic trainer.”
Clinical Education Coordinator • ClinEdGs - Clinical Instructor Educator (CIE) will teach course to prepare Approved Clinical Instructors (ACI) • JRC-AT - director of clinical education is an option, not a requirement • Often the program director
Clinical Education Coordinator • Duties typically include: • Assigning student’s clinical experiences • Evaluating and visiting affiliated sites • Recruiting new affiliated sites • Contact person for clinical instructors • Clinical Instructor education • etc.
Athletic Training FacultyClassroom and Laboratory • Draft 2: Faculty- I.B.1.b.(a)- “… must be familiar with the ‘NATA competencies…’” • ClinEdGs- “students are permitted to develop [psychomotor] proficiency within adjunct affiliated professional clinical sites (e.g…. Exercise physiology lab) during clinical education course… In this situation the supervisor need not possess an ACI.”
Approved Clinical Instructor (ACI) • Draft 2: I.B.1.c (1) (a)- “…provides formal instruction and/or evaluation of students in the clinical proficiencies... (b)- “...ACI must perform ... instruction and evaluation at some point during the educational experience. Evaluation of the proficiency must by done in a one on one basis.”
Approved Clinical Instructor (ACI) • ClinEdGs- • “An ACI … should supervise the students’ clinical education.” • “Supervision of students by the ACI should be through constant visual and auditory interaction between the student and the ACI.”
Approved Clinical Instructor (ACI) • ClinEdGs- • “Students should be assigned to an ACI, not to facilities and sports.” • “The daily supervision by the ACI must include multiple opportunities for evaluation and feedback between the student and ACI.”
Clinical Supervisor (Field Experiences) • Draft 2: I.B.1.c (2) (a)- “…shall provide direct supervision in the athletic training and other health care during the field experiences… should have a minimum of one year of working experience…”
Clinical Supervisor (Field Experiences) • Draft 2: I.B.1.c (2) (b)- … in the traditional experience shall be a [NATABOC] certified athletic trainer… In other … settings, … duly authorized to practice in their respective area.”
Clinical Supervision • NATABOC- supervision involves daily personal/verbal contact at the site of supervision between the athletic training student and the certified athletic trainer who plans, directs, advises, and evaluates the student's athletic training experience. The supervising certified athletic trainer must be physically present in order to intervene on behalf of the individual being treated.
Clinical Experience • Draft 2 : Curriculum- II.B.1.e.- “… Provision for clinical experiences under the direct supervision of a qualified clinical instructor in an acceptable clinical setting…[guideline]close cooperation between the program director and the clinical instruction staff will be necessary for effective planning and implementation of student clinical experience”
Clinical Experience • Draft 2: Curriculum- II.B.1.f- “a minimum of two academic years… with course credit must be obtained. The clinical setting must include the athletic training room(s), athletic practices, and competitive events for a minimum of one of the two academic years…”
Clinical Experience • Draft 2: Curriculum- II.B.1.g- “ supervised clinical experiences must involve daily personal contact and supervision between the clinical instructor and the student in the same clinical setting.” • Draft 2: Curriculum- II.B.1.h- “An effective ratio of students to clinical instructors must be maintained.”
Clinical Experience • Draft 2: Curriculum- II.B.2.a, b, c - “documents appropriate learning experiences and curriculum sequencing to develop the competencies… provides a logical progression. Includes clearly written course syllabi that describe learning objectives and competencies to be achieved…”
Clinical Experience • Draft 2 : Curriculum- Instructional Plan- II.B.2.d- “documents frequent evaluation... [Guideline]-An ACI should instruct the clinical proficiencies and pyschomotor skills… each instructor should be provided with tools to evaluate the acquisition of skills and proficiencies in a consistent manner”
Non-ATC Instructors?? • ClinEdGs- “students are permitted to develop [psychomotor] proficiency within adjunct affiliated professional clinical sites (e.g…. exercise physiology lab) during clinical education course… In this situation the supervisor need not possess an ACI.”
Non-ATC Instructors?? • Draft 2 : Instructional Staff- I.B.1.c (1) (b)- “...ACI must perform psychomotor and/or clinical proficiency instruction and evaluation...” • ClinEdGs- “students are permitted to develop proficiency within adjunct … clinical sites (e.g…. Exercise physiology lab) during clinical education course… In this situation the supervisor need not possess an ACI.”
Communication • What should clinical instructors expect athletic training students to know? • What should clinical instructors be expected to teach? • What documentation is needed?
Communication • Draft 2 : Program Evaluation- I.E.2.c - “… must document that the didactic and clinical educational achievements of its students are verifiable and assessed in consistent ways. [Guideline] …documentation of academic and clinical progression… The proficiencies should be evaluated during program completion via standardized evaluation methods.”
Communication • DRAFT 2 : Instructional Plan- II.B.2.d - “documents frequent evaluation... [Guideline]- ...Each instructor should be provided with tools to evaluate the acquisition of skills and proficiencies in a consistent manner” • DRAFT 2 : Instructional Plan- II.B.2.c - “... clearly written course syllabi that describe learning objectives and competencies to be achieved…”
Communication • Athletic training classroom faculty and clinical instructors are the same? • Athletic training classroom faculty and clinical instructors are not the same? • On-campus ACIs? • Off-campus ACIs?
Communication • Related classroom faculty and non-ATC clinical educators • Draft 2 : I.B.1.b.(a)- “… must be familiar with the ‘NATA competencies…’” • How do you familiarize the 5 faculty members (including 3 part-timers) teaching the Nutrition 101 course with the NATA competencies? Psychology 101? Anatomy 101?