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m -Business. Content 1. Wireless Devices 2. Wireless Internet Access 3. Wireless Web Technology 4. Software Applications for Wireless Devices 5. B2C Applications. Introduction. Wireless technology turns e-business into m-business , or mobile business Current applications

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m-Business

Content

1. Wireless Devices

2. Wireless Internet Access

3. Wireless Web Technology

4. Software Applications for Wireless Devices

5. B2C Applications


Introduction

  • Wireless technology turns e-business into m-business, or mobile business

  • Current applications

    • Conduct online transactions

    • Make purchases

    • Trade stocks

    • Send e-mail

  • Future applications

    • A wireless office, where computers, phones and other office equipment are all networked without cables


Wireless Devices

  • Wireless development

    • First-generation wireless technology was the cellular phone

    • Second generation wireless technology, which includes digital cellular phones, is currently in use worldwide

    • Third generation, or 3G technology will enable wireless devices to send and receive data as much as seven times faster than a standard 56K modem

  • Wireless devices

    • Personal digital assistants (PDAs)

    • Digital cellular phones

    • Two-way pagers


Wireless Devices (cont.)

  • Outside the United States, mobile phones are the preferred medium for getting information and making e-business transactions

  • Service is not universally available and still relatively expensive

  • Limited bandwidth restricts the amount of data that can be sent over the wireless network

  • Wireless devices have significantly smaller memory capacity and less powerful processors than desktop computers


m-Business

  • m-Business

    • e-Business using wireless devices with Internet access

    • B2C marketplace

      • Increased conveniences for consumers

      • Frequent, small transactions

      • Receiving news, sports scores, e-mail, coupons and advertisements

    • B2B marketplace

      • Salespeople can access product databases and place orders

      • Address customer needs immediately

      • Ordering and billing will be conducted remotely


Wireless Internet Access

  • Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)

    • Each transmission is assigned a specific channel, giving the transmission the benefit of the entire bandwidth within that channel and reducing the possibility that a connection will be broken

    • Able to assign each transmission on the network a unique code to ensure security

  • Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)

    • Uses Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) which takes multiple calls and assigns each call to a different time slot on the same radio frequency


Wireless Internet Access (cont.)

  • 3G technologies

    • EDGE (Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution)

    • Cdma2000

    • W-CDMA

  • International Telecommunications Union (ITU)

    • Establishes guidelines for 3G


Wireless Web Technology

  • Three technologies are used to provide Web access to wireless devices

    • Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)

    • Web Clipping

    • Microsoft’s Pocket Internet Explorer


Web Clipping

  • Web clipping

    • Allows users to take relevant pieces of a Web site and deliver it to a wireless device, eliminating excess content and graphics

    • Palm devices use Web clipping

  • Proxy server

    • Lies between client (such as a Web browser) and Web server

    • Query is received by a proxy server controlled by the wireless ISP

    • Proxy server goes to the Web site and “clips” the necessary data

      • The proxy server transmits the data back to your wireless device

      • If the proxy server does not have the information, it passes the request to the regular server


Personal Digital Assistants

  • Palm VII wireless handheld computer

  • Query Application Builder (QAB)

    • Web designers build Palm Query Applications (PQAs) to be installed on users’ Palm handheld computers

    • With a PQA for a particular web site installed on the Palm, the user can view the tailored content for that web site




WAP and WML

  • Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)

    • Developed by Nokia, Ericsson, Motorola, etc.

    • A set of communication protocols designed to enable different kinds of wireless devices to communicate and access the Internet

    • Designed to standardize development across different wireless technologies worldwide

    • Intended primarily for Internet-enabled digital phones, pagers and other handheld devices

    • Uses Web sites specifically designed for wireless handheld devices that have small screens and low-bandwidth constraints


WAP and WML (cont.)

  • Wireless Markup Language (WML)

    • The scripting language used to create Web content to be delivered to wireless handheld devices, based on XML

    • Removes “unnecessary” content from Web pages

    • WML tags are used to “mark up” a Web page to specify how the page should be formatted on a wireless device

    • WML works with the WAP to deliver the content

    • Similar to HTML, but it does not require input devices

  • Microbrowsers

    • Designed with limited bandwidth and limited memory requirements

    • Access the Web via the wireless Internet


WAP and WML (cont.)

  • How wireless Internet works:

    • A WAP gateway, which acts as a proxy server, receives the request, translates it and sends it to the appropriate Internet server

    • Server responds by sending the requested WML document

    • The WAP gateway parses this document's WML (i.e., it analyzes the WML document, checking it for correctness) and sends the proper text to the digital phone

  • Deck

    A WML document

  • Card

    • Consists of one user interaction, providing the WML browser with a small, self-contained document for browsing



Software Applications for Wireless Devices

  • No widely accepted standard for wireless development

  • Developers are often required to develop multiple applications

  • Microsoft Pocket Internet Explorer

    • Reformats complete Web pages as they are downloaded from the Internet for display on the Pocket PC

    • Allows Pocket PC users to access most of the content currently available on the Web and eliminates the need to tailor Web content for delivery to handheld devices

  • PacketVideo

    • Specializes in wireless video technology for mobile devices





Wireless Local Area Networks

  • Easier to install and maintain without disrupting an office

  • Computers can easily be moved without having to install a new network connection in each location

  • Radio Frequency WLANs (RF WLANs)

    • Used to network devices at a distance

  • Infrared and laser WLANs

    • Do not require approval

    • Do not have the same interference issues

    • Can be used only for short distances


Wireless Local Area Networks (cont.)

  • Infrared technology

    • More cost efficient than laser technology

    • Equipment has a longer lifespan

    • Technology is less susceptible to weather

    • Reliable and easy to install

    • The system is portable

  • Transceivers

    • Send the signal between the buildings and are linked to the network using fiber-optic cable (used with infrared technology)


Bluetooth

  • Bluetooth

    • A wireless technology that provides short-range, high-speed voice and data communication between digital devices

    • Conceived by Ericsson in 1994

    • Provides up to 1 Mbps (megabits per second) of data transfer capability between devices as much as 30 feet apart

    • Can also be used to create wireless offices

  • Bluetooth Special Interest Group

    • Initially comprising Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Toshiba and Nokia

    • Developed an open specification for the technology and to encouraged cross-platform capabilities for the different wireless devices



Wireless Communications

  • Wireless communications can be unreliable and slow, wireless-device bandwidth is about one fifth of the capabilities of a standard dial-up connection

  • General packet radio services (GPRS)

    • Enables devices to transmit data at speeds of up to 114 kbps

  • Universal mobile telecommunications standard (UMTS)

    • Will offer transfer speeds of up to 2 Mbps for wireless devices

  • Smart phones

    • Mobile phones that send and receive both voice and data messages

    • Used to securely send and receive secure mobile transactions


Location Tracking

  • Location tracking

    • Can be used for navigation, such as GPS (Global Positioning System) devices installed in cars

    • Can be used by shipping companies to track delivery trucks, giving customers more accurate tracking information and expected delivery time

    • Can also be used for targeted marketing

    • Go2systems.com


Global Positioning System (GPS)

  • Developed by the United States Department of Defense for military purposes, now used in commercial devices

    • Standard Positioning Service (SPS)

    • Precise Positioning Service (PPS)

  • Uses satellites to track a user’s position (vertical and horizontal), velocity and the time in their location

  • Six circular orbits (four satellites per orbit), five ground stations and three antennas

  • Triangulation

    • Three (of four) satellites are used to determine the latitude, longitude and altitude of the receiver, the fourth satellite is used to check for errors in the triangulation


Future of Wireless Internet

  • Decreasing cost and size of wireless phones and mobile devices

  • Improving technology

  • Increasing number of devices made wireless

  • Increased venture capitalist interest in wireless technology


Ultimate Wireless Device

  • Combination of all features of a mobile phone, PDA and two-way pager

  • Camera for video telephony and photography

  • Make calls from anywhere in the world

  • Send and receive e-mail in real-time, without having to dial into a service provider

  • Maintain your address book, schedules, to-do lists, etc.

  • Built-in GPS System


Business-to-Consumer (B2C) Applications

  • Mobile devices

    • News, scores, e-mail

  • Micropayments: small transactions

    • Accenture’s Mobile Micropayments


B2C Applications (cont.)

Wireless micropayment demonstration


Retail

  • Web shopping saves time and money

  • Web retail models

    • Shopping-cart model

    • Auction model

    • Price-comparison model

  • Electronic Retail

    • Amazon.com

    • buy.com

    • snaz.com (wireless)

  • Wireless ticket purchases and gate transactions

    • Bluetooth and Infrared


Wireless News Services

  • Concise text-only versions

  • ABCNews.com

    • Daily headlines and section browsing

  • Dotcomscoop.com

    • Latest dot-com developments


Entertainment

  • Wireless gaming

    • Charged per game or through advertising

  • Sports teams

    • Scores and updates

    • Fantasy games

  • Downloadable e-books


Travel

  • Air Travel

    • Internet sites aggregate airline information, fill seats

    • E-tickets lower overhead costs

    • American Airlines

  • Travelocity.com

    • All travel arrangements in single visit

    • Offers wireless services on Palm

  • Navigation on Wireless Devices

    • Find restaurants, hospitals, police stations

    • Driving directions, maps

    • GPS: Global Positioning System


Travel (cont.)

American Airlines wireless home page.


Banking and Financial Services

  • Investing options

    • Full-service brokers: online trading with broker’s advice

      • Merrill Lynch

      • Salomon Smith Barney

    • Discount-brokerage service: investors manage own accounts and research

      • E*Trade

  • Wireless banking and trading

    • Fidelity’sInstantBroker: monitor market and portfolios on wireless device

    • National Discount Brokers: stock alerts, monitor market and stock management


Banking and Financial Services (cont.)

  • Online trading considerations

    • User issues

      • Time

      • Knowledge on investing

    • Service issues

      • Type of investments

      • Navigation tools

      • Customer service

      • Number of trades and fees

  • Learning tools

    • The Motley Fool: financial information site

    • Money.com: financial strategies


Banking and Financial Services (cont.)

Placing a stock order through NDB’s Mobility.


Banking and Financial Services (cont.)

Viewing your profile via Mobile E*Trade.


Other Applications

  • Wireless insurance

    • Progressive Causality Insurance Company: finding agents and getting price quotes

  • Wireless real estate

    • check additional listings, review amenities and submit bids while viewing a property with a client


Main References

  • e-Business & e-Commerce for Managers, H.M. Deitel, P.J. Deitel and K. Steinbuhler, Prentice Hall, 2000.

  • eBusiness Essentials: Technology and Network Requirements for Mobile and Online Markets, 2/e, by Mark Norris and Steve West, John Wiley & Sons, 2001.


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