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ManRiX, The Design of Robust and Efficient Microkernel. Presented by: Manish Regmi ( ) Rajesh Bikram R.C. ( ) NITC (Nepal information Technology center) Singhadurbar Kathmandu, Nepal. Introduction. Microkernel

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manrix the design of robust and efficient microkernel

ManRiX, The Design of Robust and Efficient Microkernel

Presented by:

Manish Regmi (

Rajesh Bikram R.C. (

NITC (Nepal information Technology center)

Singhadurbar Kathmandu, Nepal



  • A tiny kernel with very essential services in Kernel space and rest services in user space.


  • Microkernel architecture with POSIX compliance.
  • Written from scratch using C & Assembly.
  • Separate architecture dependent and independent files.
  • Open Source project.
manrix s design
ManRiX’s Design
  • Microkernel based Design.
  • Only few essential services in Kernel space.
  • All other services in User Space.
  • Applications Communicate through IPC.

ManRiX’s Microkernel

ManRiX’s Architecture

microkernel components
Microkernel Components
  • Process and Threads
    • Process Passive Entity and Threads Active entity.
    • Process just encapsulates the threads and provides address


  • Memory Management
    • Memory Manager is based in Mach’s VM design.
    • VM manager is divided into two parts, the machine dependent part called that Pmap and the machine independent part called the vmmap.
    • Supports read/write sharing of memory and copy on write sharing of memory.
    • Uses a slab allocator (conceived by Solaris) to allocate kernel memory.
  • POSIX Signal and Timers.
    • Signals provide a mechanism for notifying processes of system events.
    • 26 signals standard POSIX signals and 5 are Real-time Signals.
  • Inter Process Communication (IPC).
    • IPC through Synchronous Message Passing.
    • Three types of messages:
        • SHORT: messages in CPU Registers.
        • LONG: Copying of messages (< 256 bytes).
        • MAP: Through Page Table Mapping.
  • Interrupt Management
    • Microkernel doesn’t handle interrupts in kernel space.
    • Microkernel acts as an IRQ redirector. User Space Applications run the Interrupt Handler.
  • Idle Hooking
    • ManRiX microkernel is capable of making effective use of idle CPU.
    • The user can hook a function to run when the processors are idle.


  • Kernel Preemption
    • Microkernel is a fully preemptible. It means that it is able to preempt a thread even if it is running in kernel mode.
    • Highly increases the responsiveness of the system and decreases the latencies.
    • Preemption can be disabled at critical section.
  • Symmetric Multiprocessor (SMP) support
    • ManRiX supports Multiprocessors.
    • For Now supports Intel Multi Processors (MP) systems only.
    • Kernel Synchronization through Spin locks.
  • Scheduler
    • Supports POSIX style scheduler.
    • 128 priorities where numerically lower value means low priority and vice versa.
    • Scheduler is capable of distinguishing between interactive and non interactive threads.
    • Scheduler is aware of multiprocessors. Each processor has its own run queue.
    • Automatic balancing of Load.
user space components
User Space Components
  • Based on Client Server Architecture
  • Reduce IPC overhead through implementation
  • Important Components are:
    • File server.
    • Console server.
    • Separate Device Driver managers for separate devices.
      • Bus manager to manage PCI, USB Buses.
      • ATA manager for managing IDE disks.
      • Floppy Manager for Managing Floppy Controllers.
      • Miscellaneous manager for those who do not have their own server.
manrix microkernel posix
ManRiX>> Microkernel>> POSIX
  • Why ManRiX?
    • Learn how Operating Systems, Device Drivers work.
    • An attempt to make fast Microkernel based OS.
  • Why Microkernel?
    • Microkernel design makes ManRiX modular and scalable.
    • The fault in one subsystem does not bring the whole system down.
    • Subsystems and drivers can be restarted at runtime.
    • Microkernel code grows slower than that of Monolithic kernels.
  • Why POSIX?
    • End users and software developers does not need to learn ManRiX specific things.
    • Cuts down Training Cost and time.
    • UNIX/Linux programs will be source compatible with ManRiX.
future plans
Future Plans
  • High Availability Manager.
  • Network Manager.
  • Porting open source applications
  • Support X windows and different window managers
  • Port to different architectures like PPC, X86_64, Motorola, ARM etc.
  • Make it real time capable.

Thank You!