Compiled By: 1. Putu Eko Wibawa (09-3166) 2. I Made Dwirayana (09-3169) 3. Komang Budi Triyasa (09-3170) 4. I Wayan Ogi Mahendra (09-3171) 5. Kadek Suadnyana (09-3172)
ADVERB Definition Kinds of Adverb Relative Adverb Degree of Comparison in Adverb
DEFINITION • Adverb is the part of speech (or word class) that is primarily used to modify a verb, adjective, or other adverb. Adverbs can also modify prepositional phrases, subordinate clauses, and complete sentences. • Mainly, remember that adverb describe action verbs
KINDS OF ADVERB Adverb of Time Adverb of Affirmation Adverb of Place Adverb of Probability Adverb of Direction Adverb of Degree Adverb of Frequency Adverb of Negation Adverb of Quantity
ADVERB OF MANNER • Adverbs of manner say how something happens or is done. Where there are two or more verbs in a sentence, adverb placement affects the meaning • Most adverbs of manner are formed by adding ly to the corresponding adjectives. Examples are: happily, angrily, slowly, carefully, fast, etc.
ADVERB OF TIME Adverb of Time describe when something happens. This Adverb is used to answer the question of How long, How often, How soon, When, etc. There are two kinds of Adverb of Time : • Adverb of Definite Time is an adverb use to express a certain time, e.g. today, tomorrow, now. • Adverb of Indefinite Time is an adverb use to express time which is uncertain , e.g. ever, usually, before.
ADVERB OF PLACE • Adverb of Place describe where something happens. Most adverbs of place are also used as prepositions. • The position usually at the end of the sentence or before adverb of time. • Example : there, hereby, outside, everywhere, etc.
ADVERB OF DIRECTION • Adverb of Direction is used to describe direction where something happens. • Some of linguists consider this adverb as Adverb of Place • Example: above, below, forwards, downwards, back and forth.
ADVERB OF FREQUENCY • Adverb of Frequency describe how often something happens. • This Adverb use to answer the question of How often. • Placement usually after subject. • Example : always, often, sometimes, seldom, rarely, frequently, etc.
ADVERB OF QUANTITY • Adverb of Quantity describe how many times an action or event happens. • This Adverb usually is used to answer the question How many times. • This Adverb is similar to the Adverb of Frequency. • Example: once, twice, …time , etc.
ADVERB OF AFFIRMATION • Adverb of Affirmation describe averment, emphasis or conformity of an answer. • This kind of adverb usually placed at the beginning of sentence or post subject. • Adverb of affirmation also known as adverb of certainty. • Example : really, actually, doubles, surely, absolutely, etc.
ADVERB OF PROBABILITY • Adverb of probability describe probability of something that happened. • This adverb usually positioned before or after subject. • Example : perhaps, possibly, maybe, etc.
ADVERB OF DEGREE • Adverb of degree describe degree or level, or used to describe how far level or degree of an event. • This adverb used to answer question of how much, how little, is it more, is it less, and in what degree. • Example : too, enough, much, quite, almost, hardly, absolutely, fully, etc.
ADVERB OF NEGATION • Adverb of Negation is used to express rejection. • Example : never, nay, not, etc. • Sentence example : Will you come with me or not?
POSITION OF ADVERB • One of the hallmarks of adverbs is their ability to move around in a sentence. Adverbs of manner are particularly flexible in this regard. • Solemnly the minister addressed her congregation. • The minister solemnly addressed her congregation. • The minister addressed her congregation solemnly. • The following adverbs of frequency appear in various points in these sentences: • Before the main verb: I never get up before nine o'clock. • Between the auxiliary verb and the main verb: I have rarely written to my brother without a good reason. • Before the verb used to: I always used to see him at his summer home. • Indefinite adverbs of time can appear either before the verb or between the auxiliary and the main verb: • He finally showed up for batting practice. • She has recently retired.
RELATIVE ADVERB An adverb which introduces a relative clause is called a relative adverb. Examples are: when, where, why, whatever, wherever etc. Examples in sentence: I know the house where he lives.There must be some reason why he cried.Can you tell me how it is done?The day when I met Jane was the best day of my life. Here the words where, when, why and how are relative adverbs because they introduce the relative clauses that follow immediately. Relative adverbs act as subjects or objects inside relative clauses, and at the same time they connect relative clauses to nouns or pronouns in other clauses – rather like conjunctions.
DEGREE OF COMPARISON IN ADVERB • Like adjectives, too, some adverbs can take COMPARATIVE and SUPERLATIVE forms, with -er and -est: John works hard -- Mary works harder -- I work hardest
The majority of adverbs do not take these endings. Instead, they form the comparative using more and the superlative using most.
In the formation of comparatives and superlatives, some adverbs are irregular: