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Introduction to Judaism. Two Rabbis. Shammai Strikes the man with a rod Hillel Says, “What is hateful to you, do not do to your fellow man.”. Yahweh. Hagar -- Abraham -- Sarah | | Ishmael Isaac. Founder of the Arab people. Founder of the Hebrews. Islam.

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Introduction to Judaism

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two rabbis
Two Rabbis
  • Shammai
    • Strikes the man with a rod
  • Hillel
    • Says, “What is hateful to you, do not do to your fellow man.”


Hagar -- Abraham -- Sarah

| |

Ishmael Isaac

Founder of the

Arab people

Founder of the





abraham father of judaism 2000 bce
Abraham – “Father of Judaism”2000 BCE
  • Abraham and his clan lived in Ur
  • He, his wife Sarah, and their family settled in Canaan.
abraham had two sons
Ishmael was the firstborn

Ishmael was eventually abandoned in the wilderness, along with his mother.

Isaac was the second son.

Isaac’s son was Jacob, who was later named Israel.

Abraham had Two Sons

Eventually, their descendants were enslaved by the Egyptians and remained slaves for over 400 years.

  • Hebrew who was raised as an Egyptian
  • Freed the Hebrews from Egyptian captivity
  • Received the 10 Commandments, from God, on Mount Sinai
    • First 5 about relationships
    • Last 5 about behavior
the covenant the chosen ones
The Covenant = “the Chosen Ones”
  • God promised to help the people of Israel
  • The Israelites owed God obedience and worship in return.
return to canaan
Return to Canaan
  • After Moses’ death, Joshua led the Israelites into Canaan (Israel) in the 12th century BCE.
  • After Joshua, Israel was ruled by judges, but eventually Saul, a great warrior, was appointed king.
covenant broken
Covenant Broken
  • Saul told by God to kill ALL the Amalekites
    • He spared the king and the best animals
  • God picked a new ruler, David
    • Conquered Jerusalem and united the tribes of Israel in 1000 BCE
    • David saw Bathsheba and had her husband killed
oh david what did you do
Oh David, What did you do?
  • David broke the Covenant
    • First born son died
    • Another son, Amnon, fell for his half sister, Tamar, and raped her
    • Another son, Absalom, murdered Amnon
    • Absalom died in battle
    • David asked God for forgiveness and his people suffered 3 days of pestilence
  • Solomon followed David. 961 BCE
  • Known for his wisdom.
  • Built The Temple of Jerusalem of which only one partial wall remains (The Wailing Wall).
Solomon broke the Covenant
    • Multiple wives and worshipped other gods
    • The kingdom was split into 2 independent kingdoms
      • North part became Israel
      • South part became Judah
    • Eventually, both kingdoms were conquered
      • Israel fell to the Assyrians in 722 BCE
      • Judah fell to Babylonians in 586 BCE
religious beliefs

Religious Beliefs

Myth, Doctrine & Ethics

  • The Hebrew Bible
    • Torah - First 5 Books of Moses
    • Nevi’im – “prophets”
    • Ketuvim – “scriptures”
doctrine 12 th century list compiled by maimonides
Doctrine12th century list compiled by Maimonides
  • The existence of God
  • God is one and unique
  • God is incorporeal
  • God is eternal
  • God alone should be worshipped
  • Belief in prophecy
  • Moses was the greatest prophet

The Torah is divine and was given to Moses

The Torah will not be changed

God knows the actions of man

God will reward the good and punish the wicked

The Messiah will come

The dead will be resurrected

  • Ethical Monotheism - God created humans to make moral judgments in accordance with His teachings.
  • All people are equal and should be treated with dignity and respect.
  • The Jews believed their leaders were fully human and bound by God’s law.
  • Punishment was not related to social status.