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Rachel Jones, PhD, RN, FAAN, Northeastern University Donald R Hoover, PhD, MPH, Rutgers, University Lorraine Lacroix, M - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Love, sex, and Choices- Soap Opera Video Episodes Streamed to Smartphones in a Randomized Controlled Trial to Reduce HIV Sex Risk in Young Urban African American/Black Women. Rachel Jones, PhD, RN, FAAN, Northeastern University Donald R Hoover, PhD, MPH, Rutgers, University

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Love, sex, and Choices-Soap Opera Video Episodes Streamed to Smartphones in a Randomized Controlled Trial to Reduce HIV Sex Risk in Young Urban African American/Black Women

Rachel Jones, PhD, RN, FAAN, Northeastern University

Donald R Hoover, PhD, MPH,Rutgers, University

Lorraine Lacroix, MPH, Northeastern University

This research was supported by
This research was supported by:

National Institute of Nursing Research R01NR10860

National Library of Medicine G08 LM008349

Healthcare Foundation of New Jersey

Formative studies
Formative Studies

Women had unprotected sex with partners they believed engaged in HIVrisk behaviors

Jones, 2006; Jones & Gulick, 2009

Patterns of Unprotected Sex Among Women

Importance of unprotected sex to win and hold onto a man and to show trust

Jones & Oliver, 2007

Theoretical framework to soap opera development

Sex Scripts Power as Knowing Participation in Change ®

Theoretical Framework TO Soap Opera Development


Sex scripts: socially shared meanings about sex behavior(Simon & Gagnon, 1989)

Power as Knowing Participation in Change®(Barrett, 2010)

  • being aware of what one is chooses to do

  • feeling the freedom to act intentionally

  • being involved in creating the changes that one intends

  • People participate in change, but not always in a knowing manner

    Jones, 2006; Jones & Oliver, 2007

  • Entertainment education

    Soap Operas

    Singhal, Cody, Rogers, Santelli, 2004


    Stories grounded in urban women’s own experiences

    Women identify with the heroines’ process of change

    Messages to reduce HIV risk are designed to fulfill familiar relationship needs

    Pilot study on handheld computers
    Pilot Study on Handheld Computers

    A Story about Toni, Mike, and Valerie

    • 43 minute pilot video available at:

      Jones, 2008; Jones & Oliver 2007

    The intervention love sex and choices ls c

    Twelve, 15-20 minute episodes; Written & scripted by study team, professional filmmaker(Alan Roth), and actors

    The intervention: Love, Sex, and Choices (LS&C)

    Study design and expected outcome
    Study Design and Expected Outcome

    • 1:1 randomized controlled trial (RCT)

    • Comparing LS&C to 12-week HIV prevention intervention of text messages

      • Both groups used study-provided smartphonesJones & Lacroix, 2012

    • ExpectedOutcome

      • Video intervention participants have less unprotected vaginal and anal sex withhigh risk partners at 3 months (T2) and at 6 months (T3) than the comparison text message group

    Sex risk measured by vee
    Sex Risk Measured by VEE

    • Unprotected anal and vaginal sex using the vaginal episode equivalent (VEE)* with high risk partners

      ∑ (#UV)i + 2 (#UA)i )= sex risk

    • the sum of the # of unprotected vaginal sex acts + 2 x the number of unprotected anal sex acts, where i is the # of high risk partners in the past 3 months

      *Susser, Desvarieux, &Wittkowski (1998), Reporting sexual risk behavior for HIV: A practical risk index and a method for improving indices. American Journal of Public Health, 88, 671-674.

    Participants and settings
    Participants and Settings

    • 18 to 29 year old women

      • Inclusion criteria:

        • Hadunprotected vaginal/ anal sex with men they believed had sex with other women/men, and/or injected drugs -past 3 months

  • Recruited in Newark, Jersey City, East Orange, & Irvington, NJ from:

    • Public housing, STD Clinics, Community Center, Storefront, Food Pantry

  • Screening, Baseline, and Post-Intervention Interviews conducted with Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI)

  • Data a nalysis
    Data Analysis

    • Outcome = VEE with high risk partners at T2 (3 mo), and T3 (6 mo)

    • Due to skewness (VEE +0.5) was log transformed

    • Repeated measures mixed linear models that adjusted for baseline behavior were fit

    Results participant flow
    Results: Participant Flow

    505 screened

    -295 eligible, consented, randomized

    -57 lost to f/u, most due to lost cell phones

    238 completed T2 and T3 post-intervention interviews

    -117 in Video Group

    -121 in Text Group

    Table 1 baseline equality of video and text arms
    Table 1. Baseline Equality of Video and Text Arms

    • * Note- The intervention groups did not differ on any of these variables at p < 0.05 by exact test or Wicoxon test

    Summary of baseline findings
    Summary of Baseline Findings

    • Almosthalf had unprotected anal sex in the prior 3 months with high risk partners.

    • Half (n=121, 51%) had 3 or more partners

    • A surprising number knew/ suspected their partners had sex with men –42 % Video vs 30% of Text arm, P =0.06.

    • Over half the sample (56.7%) had first coitus at ≤ 14 years old.

    Table 2 pre and post intervention vee change
    Table 2. Pre and Post Intervention VEE Change

    • P > 0.20 from Wilcoxon test for difference in VEE between Video Arm and Text Arm at each of the three time points


    Table 3 associations of variables with vee behavior change 1
    Table 3 Associations of Variables with VEE behavior Change 1

    • 1. From Mixed Model Linear Regression on log transformed VEE at T2 and T3 with log baseline VEE as a covariate. Video Vs. Text and time points T2 Vs. T3 are forced into the model, otherwise only variables with P < 0.20 in Adjusted Models are included. Pre-intervention baseline VEE is included in all models.

    • 2. NOTE – Age, Age at First Sex, Ethnicity, Work Outside of Home, Education, Sexual Pressure Score, Sensation Seeking Score, and Any Male Partner had sex with Men did not meet the P < 0.20 Selection criteria

    • 3. From exponentiation of parameter estimates from mixed linear regression models with Log transformed VEE at post intervention Visits 2 and 3 as outcomes.

    • 4. Overall P-value for study site association with post intervention behavior was 0.03 in the multivariate model

    Summary of main findings
    Summary of Main Findings Change

    • Sex risk behavior declined by 19% more in the soap opera video group than the HIV prevention text group. Difference was not statistically significant (p=0.21).

    • VEE risk behavior was ~12% lower at T3 (6 Mo) than T2 (3 Mo) in both groups, this difference betweentime points was not statistically significant (p = 0.17)

    • Greater risk post-baselinereduction of VEE at STD clinic sites than instorefront or public housing.

    Evaluation of love sex and choices videos by participants
    Evaluation of Change Love, Sex, and Choices Videos By Participants

    • Women were enthusiastic about the videos.

      • All but 4 of 117 thought the stories were realistic

      • All but 8 could relate to the characters

      • 90 % thought their friends might like to watch

      • All but one wanted the stories to continue

    Evaluation of smartphone by 117 video participants
    Evaluation of Smartphone by 117 Video Participants Change

    • Using cell phone for the project was easy (n = 113, 96.6%)

    • Using the cell phone maintained privacy (n =113, 96.6%)

    • Wanted to continue watching with the phone (n =107, 91.4%)

    • Jones & Lacroix (2012)

    • High risk behavior at baseline Change

    • Post-intervention sex risk VEE behavior was reduced (p < 0.001) in both groups.

    • While reduction was 19% more in the video group, this difference was not statistically significant.

    • Both groups received emails, calls, smartphones, high level of involvement /attention

    • Greater VEE reduction at STD clinic sites than public housing or storefront: further study needed

    • The stories held participants’ attention

    • Participants identified with characters & stories and wanted to continue watching

    Conclusion Change

    • This is the first study to evaluate streaming weekly videos to smartphones to promote health.

    • We believe that Love, Sex, and Choices was highly effective in reducing HIV risk behavior and the comparison group also received a viable HIV prevention intervention.

    • A streamed video intervention

      • can be widely distributed and accessed 24/7

      • Allows usage to be tracked, providing measures of treatment fidelity

    Gratefully acknowledge
    Gratefully Acknowledge Change

    • The National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) supported this work (RO1-NRO10864).

    • Technical support at Rutgers Newark Computing Services

    • Alan Roth, filmmaker, Martinique L. Moore, Assistant Director

    • The cast of Love, Sex and Choices;Starring: Toni:Yasmine Weaver, Diamond:TationnaBosier,

      Valerie: Leeann Hellijas, Keyanna: Darnell Rhea Williams, Mike: Laurence Covington,

      Dante: Omar Golden, James: JaylenSansom

    • Rutgers University College of Nursing and the Educational Opportunity Fund (EOF) research assistants whose dedication made this work possible: Yvesnallie Antoine, Magnolita Bonheur, Essence Burrows, Fernandine Charles, Lin Chen, Geraldine Dufort, Catherine Lora, Judeline Marcellus, Sandra Rios, Tatiana Saavedra, Griselda Sanchez, and Mireille Zuniga;

    • Thank you to the site recruiters, and to: Carol Tyler, the late Kevin Burnett, Brenda Davis, MS, LCSW, and Grace Malley, at Jersey City Public Housing; Honorable Mayor Wayne Smith of Irvington Township; Dorothy Wojcik, Program Manager, Jersey City Preventive Medicine Clinic; Ms. Verna Sims, Director at Mary McLeod Bethune Life Center; Rochelle D. Williams-Evans, RN, MS, Director/Health Officer, East Orange Department of Health & Human Services;

    • And with gratitude to the women who participated in this study.

    • Jones, R Change . & Lacroix, L.J. (2012). Using Smartphones to View Weekly Soap Opera Videos in a Randomized Controlled Trial to Reduce HIV Risk in Young Adult, Urban African American/Black Women. DOI 10.1007/s10461-012-0170-9 AIDS & Behavior, 16, 1341–1358.

    • Jones, R. (2012). Handheld computers to run ACASI to assess HIV risk and deliver tailored soap opera video feedback: Acceptability among young adult urban women. DOI: 10.1016/j.jana.2011.04.001 Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 23 (3).

    • Jones, R. & Gulick, E. (2009).The Sexual Pressure Scale for Women-Revised. Research in Nursing and Health. 32, 71–85

    • Jones, R. (2008). Soap opera video on handheld computers to reduce urban women’s HIV risk. AIDS and Behavior, 12, 876–884

    • Jones, R. & Oliver, M. J. (2007). Young urban women’s patterns of unprotected sex with men engaging in HIV risk behaviors. AIDS and Behavior, 11 (6), 812-821.

    • Jones, R. (2006). Reliability and validity of the Sexual Pressure Scale. Research in Nursing and Health, 29, 281-293.

    •   Jones, R. (2006) Sex Scripts and power: A framework to explain urban women’s HIV sexual risk with male partners. Nursing Clinics of North America, 41, 425-436.

    • Jones, R. (2004). Relationships of sexual imposition, dyadic trust, and sensation seeking with sexual risk behaviors in young urban women. Research in Nursing and Health, 27, 185-197.

    • Jones, R. (2003). Survey data collection using Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 25, 349-358.

    Many thanks to the xix international aids conference

    Rachel Jones, PhD, RN, FAAN Change

    [email protected]

    Many Thanks to the XIX International AIDS Conference