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Investigation 1 . Matter and Energy Owen Lyke And Virgil Nunan. What is Matter?. Matter is anything that you can touch. Matter is made out of atoms. Atoms are made out of three different parts, protons, neutrons, and electrons.

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investigation 1

Investigation 1

Matter and Energy

Owen Lyke

And

Virgil Nunan

what is matter
What is Matter?
  • Matter is anything that you can touch.
  • Matter is made out of atoms.
  • Atoms are made out of three different parts, protons, neutrons, and electrons.
  • In an atom, the neutrons and protons are located in the nucleus.
  • Electrons orbit the nucleus.
  • The number of protons and electrons determine what element the atom is.
  • Neutrons and protons are made of even smaller particles called quarks.
the structure of an atom
The Structure of an Atom.

Neutrons

and protons

are made

of smaller

pieces

called quarks.

There are an equal number of protons

(+ charge), and electrons (- charge) in any

Atom.

how do atoms make up matter
How do Atoms Make Up Matter?
  • To understand how atoms make up matter, we have to first understand electron shells. The electrons that orbit an atom are separated into four orbits or “shells.” Each shell can contain a finite number of electrons.
how do atoms make up matter1
How do Atoms Make Up Matter?
  • To make up the many different materials in our world, the elements have to be able to bond in different combinations. The most common kind of atomic bond is the covalent bond. The covalent bond uses the electrons that surround an atom. Because every atom is more stable with it’s outermost shell filled up, atoms either try to add or get rid of excess electrons. For example, if an Oxygen atom, with six electrons in it’s second shell, and two hydrogen atoms, with only one electron in their first shell, were in close proximity, they would form a covalent bond filling all of the shells and forming H2O.

When the oxygen atom and the two hydrogen atoms form a covalent bond, it creates an H2O molecule

atomic bonds
Atomic Bonds
  • Atomic bonds include:
    • Ionic Bonds: Formed with a metal and nonmetal, are typically hard, brittle, good Insulators, transparent, and have high melting temperatures.
    • Covalent Bonds: Formed with two nonmetals, are typically hard, transparent, brittle, and are good insulators.
    • Metallic Bonds: Formed with two metals, are typically opaque, good conductors, and are typically ductile. (Ductile: can be changed/bent without breaking.)
    • Van der Waals bond: This bond occurs between molecules, typically in plastics.
energy
Energy!
  • There are many forms of energy and most are involved in the functions of an organism.
  • Energy: The ability to perform “work.”
  • The kinds of energy include:
    • Kinetic
    • Potential
    • Thermal
    • Chemical
    • Electric
    • Electrochemical
    • Electromagnetic
    • Nuclear
kinetic energy
Kinetic Energy
  • Kinetic energy is the energy that any moving object possesses. The mass of any moving object takes a certain energy to stop. The “kinetic” energy is applied to the object which gives it the power to do “work,” which is evidence of the object having energy.
  • Example: A ball falling from a building has kinetic energy because of it’s inertia. It will take an exact amount of force to stop the ball from moving. We know that the ball has energy because of it’s ability to do “work” such as moving or damaging another object on impact.
potential energy
Potential Energy
  • Potential energy is just like kinetic energy, the only difference is that the object that is considered having potential energy is held back by an outside force. The energy is turned into kinetic energy when the outside force is removed from the system.
  • Example: A steel bearing that is being held off the ground by a human, has potential energy. The potential energy is created by an outside force (the hand) preventing the bearing from being acted upon by gravity. When the person lets go of the bearing gravity accelerates it, turning potential energy to kinetic energy.
thermal energy
Thermal Energy
  • Thermal energy is a form of kinetic energy. A hot object’s atoms are moving around faster than a cold object’s atoms. Except for potential energy, every kind of energy can cause an object to have thermal energy.
    • Kinetic: The kinetic energy of the atoms in an abject moving around causes an increase in thermal energy.
    • Chemical: Combustion is an exothermic reaction between a fuel and an oxidant that is accompanied by the production of thermal energy.
    • Electric: Electric energy would speed up the atoms which causes heat.
    • Sound: Sound waves in an object could cause atoms to vibrate, adding heat.
    • Nuclear: The splitting of atoms releases thermal energy.
chemical energy
Chemical Energy
  • Chemical energy is the energy that organisms use to create heat and move their muscles. Glucose (Blood sugar) is said to have chemical energy because when it reacts (combusts) with oxygen in a cell, it creates heat and powers the cell. Chemical energy is really a microscopic form of potential energy because of the electric and magnetic forces exerted between different parts of a molecule. When it reacts, these parts change, releasing or adding to the potential energy.

Glucose is used by our bodies to create heat and energy through combustion.

electric electrochemical energy
Electric/Electrochemical Energy
  • Electric energy is the flow of negatively charged electrons from one atom to another. Most metals have easily disturbed outer shells which make it easy for electricity to be conducted.
  • Electrochemical energy is like chemical energy, but because the chemicals create an electric current it is called electrochemical energy.
  • Electric energy has the ability to do “work” by creating a magnetic field to turn a motor or increasing a material’s thermal energy.

A battery has electrochemical energy because of the reaction between the anode and the cathode.

electromagnetic energy
Electromagnetic Energy
  • Electromagnetic energy is what makes up light. It is both a particle and a wave. Light is made up of oscillating magnetic waves and particles called photons.
  • Different frequencies of the magnetic waves are what make different colors and types of light. Lower frequencies make up radio waves, the middle frequencies are visible light, and higher frequencies are ultraviolet rays, x-rays, and gamma rays.
nuclear energy
Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclear energy is the energy that bonds the protons an neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. These forces are very strong and when they are re-arranged by fission or fusion, they release huge amounts of energy in the forms of heat, various rays, and particles.
  • Fission is the splitting of an atom’s nucleus, and is the only nuclear reaction we can currently sustain on earth.
  • Fusion is when two light element combine into a heavier element. Sustained fusion requires conditions that we cannot yet attain on earth. The center of the sun is a fusion reactor.

In nuclear fission, an atom of an element splits into two lighter elements and releases stray neutrons that continue the reaction by striking more atoms.