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Ideas for Revolution

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  1. Ideas for Revolution

  2. What you need to know • Battle of Bunker Hill • Olive Branch Petition • Common Sense • His influence on independence movement • John Locke & Montesquieu—how they influenced Declaration of Independence • How Declaration of Independence is organized • Role of Thomas Jefferson in writing Declaration • Who stayed loyalists & who became patriots

  3. After Lexington & Concord • Major debates all over colonies • Between loyalists (to the king) and patriots (for independence) • Many families split up violently

  4. 2nd Continental Congress • In Philadelphia starting May 1775 • 13 colonies send reps • John Adams (MA) wanted: • Full separation from Britain • Each colony get independence • Pick general to lead troops • Many in Congress disagreed w/him

  5. 2nd Continental Congress • Acted as government for colonies • Printed paper money to pay troops • Named George Washington commander of Continental Army • Set up committee for foreign relations • Lasted for 5 years

  6. Battle of Bunker Hill • British controlled Boston • Patriots atop steep hill across river from Boston (called Breed’s Hill) • British tried to storm hill

  7. Battle of Bunker Hill • Patriots didn’t have much ammo • “Don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes” • Kept beating Brits back • 3rd try – Brits broke through & won • Losses – Pats 400 / Brits 1000

  8. Olive Branch Petition • Plea to King George III from Congress urging return to old days of happiness & harmony  • King refused, ordered naval blockade of the coast  • Formally declared the colonies in rebellion

  9. Common Sense • Pamphlet published anonymously by Thomas Paine (over 500,000 sold) • Urged revolt & argued that independence is America’s destiny • America free to trade w/anyone for guns & ammo – inc. Brits’ enemies • Independence = chance to create better society w/equality for all

  10. Declaration of Independence • By 1776, colonies had begun declaring independence separately • NC had already, VA was about to • Congress voted 6/7/76 to declare independence, picked Jefferson to write it

  11. 3 parts of Declaration • Philosophy • Explained why all people deserved to be treated fairly • List of grievances • Explained ways Americans were treated unfairly • Separation • Declared independence

  12. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) Wrote Leviathan (1651). Believed that government existed to protect people from themselves and their natural wickedness. Hobbes believed that the social contract could never be broken, which justified absolute monarchies. If you challenge the king, you enter into anarchy.

  13. John Locke (1632-1704) Wrote Two Treatises on Government (1690) Said that humans were creatures of reason and not “naturally wicked”. Locke believed that humans entered into the social contract in order to protect their rights as citizens. If those rights were no longer being protected, the social contract could be broken. Once that social contract was broken, the people are then free to forge a new social contract. (Glorious Revolution) How is this different from Hobbes’ beliefs? Who do you believe is correct?

  14. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) The Social Contract (1762) Rousseau added to Locke’s ideas on the Social Contract stating: All people have the right to a voice in their government. Liberty/freedom could not exist without equality. The only laws that the people must obey are the laws that the people make for themselves. Governments derive their power from the consent of the governed .

  15. Montesquieu (1689 – 1755) • French philosopher inspired Americans • Separation of powers • King holds all political power, so he can easily oppress the people • If powers are separated, harder to force oppression onto the people

  16. Montesquieu • Three main powers of government • Legislative – decides what should be laws • Executive – makes sure laws are followed • Judicial – decides if people don’t follow laws

  17. Declaration of Independence • Stated all men created equal • Politically, not socially or economic • Didn’t mean women, natives or slaves • Included attack on slave trade • SC and GA wouldn’t go along with it • Jefferson cut that section out

  18. Declaration of Independence • Approved July 2, 1776 • Signed July 4, 1776 • John Hancock’s signature • Presiding officer of the Congress • Probably only person to sign it that day – lots of space to fill • Others added signatures later, most on August 2

  19. America chooses sides • Families split up • Loyalists • Opposed separation from Britain • Many switched sides during war

  20. Why did some stay loyal? • Don’t turn back on your family • New government might be worse than the old one • Didn’t think America could win • King was good to some of them

  21. Why did some rebel? • Most had something to gain financially • Some colonists weren’t English • German • Irish • Scots

  22. The neutrals • Many people didn’t choose a side • Groups who were complicated: • Quakers didn’t fight (but most supported Patriots) • Slaves fought on both sides – Brits promised freedom (many didn’t trust) • Most natives supported Brits – many stayed out (didn’t trust either side)

  23. What you need to know • Battle of Bunker Hill • Olive Branch Petition • Common Sense • His influence on independence movement • John Locke & Montesquieu—how they influenced Declaration of Independence • How Declaration of Independence is organized • Role of Thomas Jefferson in writing Declaration • Who stayed loyalists & who became patriots