Black History Month: Celebrate! By: Mr. Hunter
Racism Do you think racism still exists today? If not, explain why you think that. If so, explain why you think that and provide examples.
Emancipation An executive order in 1863 by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War, which declared the freedom of all slaves in those areas of the rebellious Confederate States of America that had not already returned to Union control.
Emancipation Proclomation • Do you think this ended slavery?
Black Codes of 1865 • Controlled and inhibited freedom of ex-slaves • Created to maintain blacks as laborers
What did the Black Codes of 1865 do? • Required freed men to work or be charged with vagrancy • Limited their choice of work (They had to have a license to work.) • Blacks could not enter towns without written permission (violation of law- imprisonment)
Reconstruction • African Americans made gains. • The 13th, 14th, & 15th Amendments were added to the Constitution. • Also, the Civil Rights Act of 1875 was passed, guaranteeing all races the same access to “public accommodations.”
Jim Crow Laws • Sprouted up after the Reconstruction and lasted until the 1960s • The Supreme Court later declared the Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional and declared that the 14th Amendment did not apply to race.
Jim Crow Laws • No person or corporation shall require any white female nurse to nurse in wards or rooms in hospitals, either public or private, in which negro men are placed. • All passenger stations in this state operated by any motor transportation company shall have separate waiting rooms or space and separate ticket windows for the white and colored races.
Jim Crow Laws • It shall be unlawful for a negro and white person to play together or in company with each other at any game of pool or billiards. • All marriages between a white person and a negro, or between a white person and a person of negro descent to the fourth generation inclusive, are hereby forever prohibited.
Plessy • Homer Plessy was 7/8ths white. • He stepped on a car reserved for whites only, and was arrested. • “Separate, but equal” did not violate his civil rights.
Agree or Disagree? Is it true that two or more races can be separate, but equal? Why?
Brown vs. Board of Education Brown v. Board of Education overturned the Court's decision in Plessy. It held that separate schools were unequal and its ruling helped dismantle racial segregation.
Brown vs. Board of Education What problems do you think desegregated schools faced?
Emmett Till • August 28, 1955 - Fourteen-year-old was taken at gun point from his uncle's home located on the outskirts of Money, Mississippi. • Three days later, the mutilated body of Emmett Till was discovered in the Tallahatchie River. Its was weighted down by a seventy-five pound cotton gin fan that was tied around Till's neck with barbed wire.
Rosa Parks • December 1 – She is arrested after she refused to give up her seat to a white passenger on the city bus.
Desegregation September 25, 1957 - President Eisenhower sends troops to Little Rock, Arkansas to protect and assist nine black students in the desegregation of Little Rock Central High School
1960 • February 1 - Four black North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College students sit down at a segregated Woolworth lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina and wait to be served. This sparks sit-ins throughout numerous other southern cities.
Sit-Ins Think about a time in your life whenever you had to be brave and stand up for what you believe in, even when others did not support you.
1963 • June 12 - Mississippi’s NAACP field secretary, Medgar Evans, is murdered outside of his home. Byron De La Beckwith is arrested and tried for the crime, but after two hung jury verdicts, he is not convicted until twenty years later.
1964 July 2 - The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is signed by President Johnson. The Act makes it illegal to discriminate in employment and illegal to segregate public facilities.
1968 • Martin Luther King, Jr. is shot.