Chapter 11. The Renaissance. Characteristics of the renaissance. The Renaissance is the period of change in Europe from the fourteenth century through the sixteenth. The foundation for the Renaissance was laid in the Middle Ages. Renaissance means “rebirth.” What do you think was “reborn?”.
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Chapter 11 The Renaissance
The Renaissance is the period of change in Europe from the fourteenth century through the sixteenth. The foundation for the Renaissance was laid in the Middle Ages. Renaissance means “rebirth.” What do you think was “reborn?” What is the renaissance?
Middle ages Renaissance • concerned with afterlife (future) • unconcerned with the “dusty” past • emphasized the importance of the group • zeal for living in the present • gloried in the past • emphasized human individuality, ability, and dignity Differences in perspective
Renewed focus on man’s capacities, but did not abandon belief in God. Its overemphasis on human worth and ability leads man to glorify himself instead of God. Humanism put too much emphasis on human ability and led to the idea that man is basically good. Humanism
Romans 3:23-24 …for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, and all are justified freely by his grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus. Man is fallible.
James 1:17 Every good and perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of the heavenly lights… All good things come from god.
Psalm 8:3-6,9 When I consider they heavens, the work of thy fingers, the moon and the stars, which thou has ordained; what is man, that thou art mindful of him? And the son of man, that thou visitest him? For thou has made him a little lower than the angels, and hast crowned him with glory and honour. Thou madest him to have dominion over the works of thy hands: thou hast put all things under his feet…O Lord our Lord, how excellent is they name in all the earth! God gave man dominion.
Need for a well-rounded education • Renewed business activity • Business contracts/legal documents • Search for classical literature • Humanities/Liberal Arts – history, science, grammar, literature, philosophy • Prepared for life in the secular world rather than the church Revival of learning
Humanists believed they could reshaped their own age according to classical values.
The ideal Renaissance Man was a well-rounded individual, knowledgeable and skilled in many fields. The humanities were characterized by questioning instead of passive acceptance and a quest for knowledge. Renaissance humanists admired the classical age of ancient Greece and Rome and sought to imitate it. Revival of learning
All this stimulated the “rebirth” of interest in the literature, art, and philosophy of the classical age. • It also led to an intense search for ancient manuscripts. • These manuscripts had been preserved by • The Byzantine Civilization • The Muslim Civilizations Revival of learning
Italian cities rose to prominence because of their close contact and trade with the Byzantine and Islamic Empires. Wealthy citizens who commissioned artists to decorate their cities and homes were called Patrons. After 1500 the Renaissance spread to other parts of Europe by students who had studied in Italy. The Renaissance began in italy.
The Medici family was the most famous of the Renaissance patrons who promoted learning and art. Lorenzo de Medici (Il Magnifico) was the most notable and most generous of all. Under Il Magnifico, Florence became the most influential city of the Renaissance movement. He was the patron of Michaelangelo. The Medici
Petrarch, the Father of Humanism – a Florentine poet and scholar who collected classical documents and led the way in reviving interest in classical literature. Thought and literature
Castiglione – In The Courtier, he describes the ideal Renaissance gentleman as • a man of character, • well-educated, • courageous, • and courteous. • The Courtierbecame the standard for courtly behavior in Renaissance Europe. (See inset page 259 Rules for Proper Conduct.) Thought and literature
Machiavelli – Florentine thinker and writer who wrote The Prince, an essay reflecting on the political conditions of his day. It promotes the idea that a prince must do whatever it takes to take and maintain power. He also wrote Discourses on the First Ten Books of Livy, which favors a republican form of government with checks and balances. Thought and literature
Erasmus – from Rotterdam (Holland), wrote The Praise of Folly using satire to point out the evils and follies of Renaissance society. He became an advocate for church reform and prepared the world for the Protestant Reformation. Thought and literature Erasmus by Holbein
Sir Thomas More – English humanist who wrote Utopia, a story of an imaginary perfect state. He served as Henry VIII’s Lord Chancellor. Henry VIII had him beheaded for treason because he refused to acknowledge Henry as Head of the Church of England. “I die the king’s loyal servant, but God’s first.” Thought and literature
Sir Thomas More by Holbein
Miguel de Cervantes – Spanish writer of Don Quixote, a satirical story of a Spanish gentleman who imagines himself to be a knight and makes a fool of himself. The story pokes fun at the chivalric literature popular in Spain at the time and at outmoded medieval ideas. Thought and literature
Miguel de Cervantes Don Quixote and SanchoPanza by Picasso
William Shakespeare – English poet & playwright (1564-1616) Globe Theatre Histories, Tragedies, Comedies Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, MacBeth A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Much Ado About Nothing, A Comedy of Errors Thought and literature
Globe Theatre Literary Genius
Johannes Gutenberg – German Put moveable-type printing into use in Europe. Changing the world
Cost of books dropped dramatically More books available Errors were reduced Helped ideas spread rapidly New universities and colleges established. Bible produced in large quantities. Effects of the printing press
medieval renaissance • Emphasized the spiritual realm. • Artists were supported by the Church of Rome. • Artists worked for the glory of God. • Flat, 2-dimensional • Subjects were church leaders, saints, Bible characters. • Primary medium was architecture. • Emphasized the present physical world. • Artists were supported by private patrons. • Artists were proud of work and signed their names. • Realistic, 3-dimensional • Subjects were kings, merchants • Media were painting & sculpture. The visual arts
The visual arts • Giotto- Father of Renaissance painting • Frescos – painting on wet plaster • Strove for realism
The visual arts • Masaccio – Florentine who used shading to create a 3-dimensional effect Noah
The visual arts Botticelli – painted figures with flowing hair and wispy garments giving his figures an appearance of movement. The Birth of Venus
The visual arts • Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) – best example of The Renaissance Man • Sculptor, architect, painter, musician, poet, engineer, mathematician, medicine, botanist, et al
Mona Lisa Leonardo da Vinci
The last supper In a state of decay A reproduction
The visual arts • Raphael – painted Madonnas in which he idealized motherhood • Famous for painting frescoes, especially portraying a peaceful, joy-filled life. Raphael’s The School of Athens
The visual arts • Michelangelo – probably the most famous artist in history
The visual arts - michelangelo The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican Creation of Adam
The visual arts • Albrecht Dürer – a well-rounded Renaissance man of Germany • Writer, designer, engraver, painter, woodcarver • Nature, classical, religious themes Knight, Death and Devil, 1513
The visual Arts Henry VIII & Catherine of Aragon • Hans Holbein – German, finest portrait painter of the Northern Renaissance • Official court painter of Henry VIII • Portraits of Erasmus and Sir Thomas More shown earlier were Holbein’s
The visual arts • Jan van Eyck – Flemish painter who was one of the first to use oils. The Arnolfini Marriage
Arts- architects & sculpturers • Donatello – leading sculptor of Early Renaissance Italy
Music of the renaissance • Medieval music was “plainsong,” Gregorian chants sung in church. • Renaissance music was more secular and was sung in homes and palaces. • More people played musical instruments. • Most popular instrument was the lute.