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Insert the title of your presentation here. Meat & Poultry Sources. Labeling Quality Grades Consumption Rates CAFO’s. Meat & Poultry Labeling. Antibiotic Free - animals raised without antibiotics

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Meat poultry sources
Meat & Poultry Sources

  • Labeling

  • Quality Grades

  • Consumption Rates

  • CAFO’s

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Meat poultry labeling
Meat & Poultry Labeling

  • Antibiotic Free- animals raised without antibiotics

  • Cage free (poultry)- ensures that chickens were not housed in cages, but it does not mean the animals were given access to the outdoors.

  • Certified Humane- This is a voluntary certification and label to ensure humane treatment of farm animals from birth to slaughter

  • Free range (poultry)- usually refers to chicken and eggs that they produce. The chickens were not confined, and were able to go outdoors and engage in natural behaviors. Technically, it only means that the bird has access to the outdoors, sometimes only 5 minutes/day. It is also possible that the outdoors is a dirty or concrete feedlot.

  • Grass Fed - According to USDA regulations, this means that grass and forage are fed to the animals throughout their life

  • Natural- Used for labeling if the meat does not contain any artificial flavoring, coloring agent, or chemical preservatives, and if the product and its ingredients are not more than minimally processed

  • No Hormones (beef)- Documentation showing no hormones have been used in raising the animals/ hormones are not allowed in raising pork or poultry



  • Prime- highest quality/ abundant marbling

  • Choice- high quality, but less marbling than prime

  • Select- leaner than higher grades/ less marbling


  • Not graded because generally bred and fed to produce uniformly tender meat


  • Grade A- highest quality/ free of defects

  • Grade B&C- used in further processed products/ if sold retail, usually without a grade


  • Prime- very high in tenderness, juiciness, and flavor

  • Choice- slightly less marbling than prime, but still of very high quality

What are they
What are they?

  • A production process where animals are kept in a small tight area which leads to waste disposal into the environment and mistreatment of animals

  • Also knows as factory Farms

  • What types of CAFOs exist?

    • Beef

    • Pork

    • Chicken

    • Turkey

    • Egg Factory Farms

Types of cafos
Types of CAFOs

  • Beef

    • In 2010, 34.2 million cattle were slaughtered

    • Painful mutilations include dehorning, castration, and branding

  • Chickens

    • Every year nearly 9 million chickens are slaughtered

    • Chickens take 30-35 days to reach market weight

    • In 1950s, it took 84 days to reach market weight

Types of cafos1
Types of CAFOs

  • Pork

    • About 112 million pigs are slaughtered each year

    • Are kept in such tight cages that it is often impossible to lie down or even turn to see their piglets

Types of cafos2
Types of CAFOs

  • Turkey

    • In 2007, 265 million turkeys were slaughtered for meat

    • Crowding at this level can cause turkeys to injure each other so turkeys often have portions of their beaks and toes removed at a young age

  • Egg Factory Farms

    • In 2007, 280 million hens laid 77.3 billion eggs

    • Male chicks don’t lay eggs therefore, 260 million are killed each year upon hatching – they are ground up and repurposed in pet foods and cattle food

Facts about consumption
Facts about Consumption

  • From 1971 to 2010, worldwide production of meat tripled to around 600 billion pounds while global population grew by just 81 percent

  • Americans eat on average 1/2 lb of meat a day = 180 lbs a year

  • Americans now consume an average of 67 pounds of poultry per year, including at least 50 pounds of chicken an increase of more than 100% since the 1970’s.

  • At this rate, production will double by 2050 to approximately 1.2 trillion pounds of meat per year, requiring more water, land, fuel, pesticides and fertilizer and causing significant damage to the planet and global health

  • Americans consume 3x more meat than the average meat of the global population

  • Red meat still represents the largest proportion of meat consumed in the U.S.- 58%- 22% of it being processed

  • The incidence of colorectal, esophagus, lung, and liver cancer were all associated with red meat consumption

  • Increased risk with colorectal and lung cancer was associated with higher intakes of processed meats

Fish sources
Fish Sources

  • Farmed Fish

  • Problems with Farmed Fish

  • Wild Caught Fish

  • Benefits of Wild Caught Fish

  • Mercury in Fish

  • High and Low Mercury

    Containing Fish

  • Fish Labeling

Farm vs wild
Farm vs. Wild

  • Fish Farming

    • The controlled production of fish in constructed facilities in captivity

    • Why are they used?

      • Shift in society towards healthier choices– increasing demand

      • Global fish consumption expected to

        rise by 25% by 2030

      • The FAO estimates that the cost of

        catching fish in the wild is about 25%

        higher than the value of the catch

Problems with fish farms
Problems with Fish Farms

  • Pollution

  • Antibiotic use

  • Disinfectants

  • Pesticides

  • Waste

  • Reduced biodiversity and

    disease when fish spread when fish escape from the farms

  • Several antibiotics banned in the U.S. are used in other countries in which we export from

  • Over 90% of the salmon that is sold to us in stores is farm raised and can contain up to 16 more contaminants than wild salmon

Wild caught fish
Wild Caught Fish

  • Can be very misleading

  • Some methods of “wild caught” are highly destructive: dynamiting reefs, high-seas bottom-trawling, and drift nets

  • BUT can also encompass more

    desirable low-impact-

    hand-liners, divers, pots, and


Benefits of wild caught fish
Benefits of Wild Caught Fish

  • Higher levels of Omega-3 FA

  • Low levels of toxic compounds

  • Often contain lower levels of mercury than fish in farms

  • No antibiotics, pesticides, herbicides

  • No GMO’s

  • Very low levels of disease in the fish

Mercury in fish
Mercury in Fish

  • Low oxygen + low pH levels + warm water = atmosphere that is favorable for the methylation process to begin

  • Nearly all fish have traces of methylmercury (mercury) in them, but older fish typically have higher levels due to longer time for accumulation

  • In addition, larger fish and those higher up in the food chain have higher levels due to eating smaller mercury containing fish

  • High Mercury containing fish: crabs, salmon, tilapia, scallop, shrimp

  • Low Mercury containing fish: Tuna (canned, ahi), shark, swordfish, orange roughy, grouper, seabass

Fish labeling
Fish Labeling

  • Less than 2% of imported fish go through inspection before sold and international fisheries do not need to follow near the same regulations as the U.S. – which makes it even more important to buy domestic

  • Seafood does NOT need to be labeled, no enforcement mechanisms exist, and many fish are even mislabeled

Produce sources
Produce Sources

  • Genetically Modified Organisms

  • Organics

  • Organic Labeling

  • Heirloom


  • What are they?

    • Genetically modified organisms are foods that have their basic genetic structure changed by adding a gene to it

  • Why should we be concerned?

    • Increase in food allergies

    • Compromised drinking water and aquatic life

    • Horizontal Gene Transfer

    • Outcrossing

    • Creation of superfoods and superpests

Gmo examples
GMO Examples

  • Sweet corn

  • Soybeans

  • Salmon

  • Tomatoes

  • Potatoes

  • Papaya

  • And products made from GM plants such as starch, chips, tomato sauce


  • What defines “Organic”

    • It is an actual certification (USDA certified)

    • Avoids synthetic and harmful pesticides, fertilizers, growth regulators, and livestock feed additives

    • The feed must also be organic

Understanding organic labeling
Understanding Organic Labeling

  • 100% Organic

    • Foods are completely organic, may also have USDA seal

  • Organic

    • Contain at least 95% organic ingredients, may also have USDA seal

  • Made with Organic Ingredients

    • At least 70% organic ingredients and will not display USDA seal

  • Contains Organic Ingredients

    • Contains less than 70% ingredients and will not display USDA seal

  • Certified Organic

    • is used to label a farm, farmer, or product that has been certified in accordance with USDA National Organic Program regulations. Producers and handlers must be certified organic to sell, label, or represent their products as certified organic. The USDA organic logo may be used on these products

Heirloom crops
Heirloom Crops

What are they??

  • Any garden plant that has a history of being passed down within a family

  • Some argue that an heirloom variety must be at least 50 to 100 years old

  • all agree that heirloom fruits and vegetables are unique plant varieties which are genetically distinct from the commercial varieties popularized by industrial agriculture


  • What is Sustainability?

  • Biodiversity

  • Sustainable Farming

  • Commercial Farming

  • Processed Foods and Hidden labeling

  • Seasonability

  • Locavorism

  • Farm to Fork

  • Changes We Can make

What is sustainability
What is Sustainability?

Relating to, or being a method of harvesting or using a resource so that the resource is not depleted or permanently damaged


  • What is it?

    • Variety of life in the world or in a particular habitat or ecosystem

  • Why is it important?

    • Critical for maintaining the basic planetary life support systems

    • Example

      • The diversity of insects and avian pollinators is vital to agriculture because they ensure that plants will produce harvestable crops

Sustainable farming
Sustainable Farming

  • Do not raise more animals than the land is capable of sustaining

  • Farmers can use manure as fertilizer for crops

    • Eliminates need for chemical fertilizers and avoids pollution issues associated with manure lagoons

  • Most run by family farmers who do not abuse the animals

  • What is it up against?

    • Smart Pasture Operations is another industrial approach but are less crowded and massive than CAFOs, and are also pasture-based

Commercial farming
Commercial Farming

  • In beef packing, 5 companies (IBP, Conagra, Cargill, Farmland National Beef, & Packerland Packing Co.) control 79% of the market

  • In poultry production, 4 companies process over 50% of all chickens and turkeys raised

  • Twelve plant crops account for more than three-quarters of the food consumed in the world, and just three—rice, wheat, and maize—are relied on for more than half of the world’s food

Processed foods hidden l abels
Processed Foods & Hidden Labels

  • Food processing is any deliberate change in a food that occurs before its available for us to eat

  • Benefits:

    • Processing methods destroy harmful pathogens

    • Easy to prepare and convenient

  • Negatives:

    • Potential negative affects of food additives such as artificial sweeteners, fats, chemical preservatives, artificial colors, and sodium

    • Many are stripped of valuable nutrients such as fiber, good fats, and antioxidants

Hidden labeling
Hidden Labeling

  • Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)

    • A flavor enhancer to emulate ‘umami’

    • MSG has been linked to asthma, headaches, and heart irregularities

    • Although some foods may not directly contain MSG, it can be formed through the manufacturing process- therefore, it is in the product but NOT on the label

    • It can be found under several names including hydrolyzed vegetable protein and natural flavors

  • Natural Flavors

    • As long as the flavoring starts with a natural ingredient, any chemicals can be added to it, AND regardless of how many solvents are used= considered natural

    • Manufacturer has no legal obligation to disclose the chemicals that are in them

    • It’s been said that many of these flavorings have more ingredients than the foods they are being added to

Eating seasonally
Eating Seasonally

  • By eating foods that are picked during peak season, you get to enjoy fresh, unprocessed fruits and vegetables

  • By choosing to eat seasonally, you eliminate the environmental damage that happens out-of-season produce while it travels thousands of miles

  • By purchasing fresh, unprocessed fruits and vegetables from local farmer’s markets, your food dollar goes directly to the farmer


What does ‘farm to fork’ mean?

Farm to fork refers to a movement concerned with producing food locally and delivering that food to local consumers

The idea of food going directly from your local farm to local fork has several goals.

Encourage diversity in the types of foods available regionally

Ensure the safety of our food supply

Improve the economic vitality of small and local farms

Avoid of use of GMO’s

Decrease the environmental impact and carbon footprint of factory farms and mass food production

Maintain food’s natural health benefits and nutritional quality

Changes we can make
Changes we can make!!

  • If you eat one less burger a week, it’s like taking your car off the road for 320 miles or line-drying your clothes half the time

  • If everyone in the U.S. ate no meat or cheese just one day a week, it would be like not driving 91 billion miles – or taking 7.6 million cars off the road

  • Shop at a farmers market

  • Dine at restaurants that support farmers markets or a local sustainable food system

  • Shop sustainable when purchasing meat, dairy, and eggs

Chronic diseases
Chronic Diseases

  • A recent study done in 2009, found those who who consumed high amounts of meat had higher energy intakes (about 700 calories more per day) than those who consumed less AND were 33% more likely to have central obesity

  • In 2009, a study was done with over a half a million people which found that men and women with the highest red meat intake, processed meat intake had an elevated risk for overall mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and cancer mortality

  • A 2002 study found that frequent consumption of processed meat was associated with a higher risk for type II diabetes

  • researchers estimated that substitutions of 1 serving per day of red meat were associated with 7% to 19% lower mortality risk

  • It was also estimated that 9.3% of deaths in men and 7.6% in women in these cohorts could be prevented at the end of follow up if all individuals consumed .5 servings/day of red meat

Environmental effects
Environmental Effects

  • According to the (EPA), chemical and animal waste runoff from factory farms is responsible for more than 173,000 miles of polluted rivers and streams. Runoff from farmlands is one of the greatest threats to water quality today.

  • According to a 2006 report by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), our diets and, specifically, the meat in them cause more greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide) to spew into the atmosphere than either transportation or industry. Livestock farming accounting for 18% of greenhouse emissions vs all the world’s cars, trains, planes and boats combined to account for 13%

Did you know
Did you know??

  • If you eat one less burger a week, it’s like taking your car off the road for 320 miles or line-drying your clothes half the time.

  • If everyone in the U.S. ate no meat or cheese just one day a week, it would be like not driving 91 billion miles – or taking 7.6 million cars off the road.

  • The water needs of livestock are tremendous, far above those of vegetables or grains. An estimated 1,800 to 2,500 gallons of water go into a single pound of beef.

  • Meat accounts for 10 percent of Americans food spending. Eating vegetables, grains and fruits in place of the 200 pounds of beef, chicken and fish each non-vegetarian eats annually would cut individual food bills by an average of $4,000 a year.