Threat and error management
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Threat and Error Management. What is TEM?. “Defensive flying”. ICAO and FAA. In 2000, LOSA baseline results showed that error management had been incorporated into everyday operations. Improved checklist usage and a 70% reduction in non-stabilised approaches.

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What is tem
What is TEM?

  • “Defensive flying”

Icao and faa

  • In 2000, LOSA baseline results showed that error management had been incorporated into everyday operations.

  • Improved checklist usage and a 70% reduction in non-stabilised approaches.

  • ICAO made LOSA the central focus of flight safety and human factors programmes.

  • TEM and LOSA recognised Worldwide.

Tem philosophy
TEM Philosophy

  • Three basic concepts:

    • Anticipation

    • Recognition

    • Recovery

  • Recover first, analyse the cause later.


  • May be internal or external.

  • They are not caused by the crew.

  • They increase the operational complexity of a flight.

  • Require crew attention and management if safety margins are to be maintained.

What is a latent threat
What is a latent Threat?

A threat that is not directly obvious to flight crew.

Equipment design.

Threat management gps
Threat Management - GPS

  • Threats & errors

    • Poor standardisation of GPS receivers

    • Poor integration with AP

    • Mis-interpretation of HSI


Obtain training & practice (VMC) with make & model

Use HDG mode when changing any detail

In non-integ. cockpit, double-check mode


  • Error is a crew action or inaction that leads to a deviation from crew or organisational intentions or expectations.

  • Put simply: threats come “at” the crew, while errors come “from” the crew.

  • An Error that is detected and effectively managed has no adverse impact on the flight.

  • An error that is not detected cannot be managed.

Flight crew errors
Flight Crew Errors

Can be divided into three types:

  • Aircraft Handling

  • Procedural

  • Communication Errors.

Consequence of error
Consequence of Error

  • The very same error can have completely different consequences, depending on the factors involved.

  • Error : setting the flaps correctly for landing is forgotten.

    • Aircraft type and performance

    • Actual landing weight

    • Runway length and obstructions ahead

Undesired aircraft state uas
Undesired Aircraft State (UAS)

  • A UAS is defined as a position, speed, attitude or configuration of an aircraft that:

    • Results from flight crew error, actions or inaction

    • Clearly reduces safety margins

  • UAS can be managed effectively or mismanaged, leading to an additional error, UAS, an incident or accident.

Tem application
TEM Application

  • T Terrain

  • W Weather

  • O Operational

  • P Plan

Two p

  • Terrain old

  • Terrain new

  • Weather good

  • Weather bad

  • Operational in

  • Operational out

Two p1

  • Assessing threats does not make them go away.

  • A threat briefing must contain effective strategies.

  • There must be a plan.

Levels of situational awareness
Levels of Situational Awareness


  • Level One: Perceive

  • Level Two: Comprehension

  • Level Three: Projection





The nuta tem links

Situation Awareness

Threat Management



Think Ahead




The NUTA/TEM Links


  • Anticipation builds vigilance.

  • Recognition leads to recovery.

  • Recover first, analyse causes later.

  • Planning.

  • Execution.

  • Review or modify.

Discussion time

Discussion Time mean that it is not a threat.