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Professional Collaboration. Adriane Miliotis Delia O’Mahony Martine Torriero. Organization of the Presentation. Introduction Issues affecting effective collaboration Ethical Issues “Turf” issues Professional collaboration with: SLP (Speech & Language Pathologist)

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Professional collaboration

Professional Collaboration

Adriane Miliotis

Delia O’Mahony

Martine Torriero


Organization of the presentation
Organization of the Presentation

  • Introduction

  • Issues affecting effective collaboration

    • Ethical Issues

    • “Turf” issues

  • Professional collaboration with:

    • SLP (Speech & Language Pathologist)

    • PT (Physical Therapist)

    • OT (Occupational Therapist) Principals

    • Child Study Team

    • Board of Education

    • Other professionals (medical doctor)

  • Suggestions for the future

  • References


Discouraging search
Discouraging Search

  • Advanced Search

  • Search Terms: professional collaboration

  • Journal: Applied Behavior Analysis

  • (Searching: PsycINFO)  

  • No results were found.


What is collaboration
What is collaboration?

  • Working together to enhance the learner’s experience

  • Respecting professional expertise


What is collaboration con t
What is collaboration? con’t

  • participation in identifying, designing, and developing inclusive program options

  • with families and other professionals

  • forming partnerships …has enhanced professional practice

  • early childhood special educator's experiences, resources, and contacts can be valuable assets to communities as they seek to expand and sustain community-based service options

    (Allen & Polaha, 2003)


What are the components of collaboration
What are the components of collaboration?

  • communication

  • decision making

  • Goal setting

  • organization

  • team process

    Nijhuis et. al. (2007)


Why collaborate
Why collaborate?

  • Learners and parents:

    • How many different people do they see before the child receives instruction?

    • What happens if parents and learners get conflicting information?


Why collaborate con t
Why collaborate? con’t

  • Team Members:

    • Can we teach effectively in a vacuum?

    • Consistent instruction

    • Share ideas

    • Learn from each other


Effective collaboration
Effective Collaboration

A basic understanding of:

  • expertise

  • orientation

  • terminology

  • potential role of the other professionals in the collaborating team

    (Geroski, Rodgers and Breen 1997)


Helpful to know
Helpful to Know

  • Qualifications +

  • Philosophy +

  • Professional terms +

  • Possible contribution to the team +

    = Professional respect


Successful collaborators
Successful Collaborators

  • Willing to try strategies

  • Interested in using something new

  • Quick to implement suggestions

  • High adopters had the most

    • knowledge of curriculum and pedagogy

    • knowledge and student friendly beliefs about managing student behavior

    • student-focused views of instruction

    • ability to carefully reflect on students' learning

      (Brownell et. al. 2006)


Roadblocks to effective collaboration
Roadblocks to Effective Collaboration

  • Excessive paperwork

  • Difficulties identifying appropriate interventions with existing resources

  • Lack of financial support

  • Inadequate training in problem solving procedures

  • No release time for meetings

  • Meeting times difficult to arrange

  • Meetings last too long

    (Yetter & Doll, 2007)


Unsuccessful collaborators
Unsuccessful Collaborators

  • Moderate and low adopters were less knowledgeable

  • took longer to grasp ideas

  • did not always implement them well

  • some of these teachers needed to have ideas explained in detail

  • would discard ideas they did not appear to comprehend

    (Brownell et. al. 2006)


Educating other professionals
Educating other professionals

  • Autism is a low-incidence disorder that has received increasing attention as parents have organized seeking more effective education services for their children with autism 1

  • prepare early intervention practitioners to work with young children with autism, severe physical impairments, and other low incidence disabilities 1

  • The program features joint course work across the Schools of Medicine and Education and seminars on collaboration and teaming 2

    1 Shriver, Allen, Mathews, 1999

    2 Able-Boone, Crais, Downing, 2003


Expanding professional roles
Expanding Professional Roles

  • Will the shift from direct to indirect roles affect:

    • job satisfaction

    • staff turnover

    • potential for burn-out among early childhood special educators

  • professionals who were originally attracted to the field because of direct work with young children and families may be less satisfied with roles that are now primarily adult oriented and facilitative in nature


Ethical issues
Ethical Issues

  • Before we can collaborate, we need:

  • Mutual consent form signed by parents and student

    • Identify specific professionals to include

    • Hand deliver, fax or mail

  • Make initial contact through a letter

    • Avoid phone tag due to different schedules

  • Send parents a copy of the letter

  • Indicate an interest in collaboration in this letter



Why should we collaborate
Why should we collaborate?

  • “Coordination between the disciplines is important when adding speech-language therapy to an applied behavioral program. All objectives must reflect a common goal in order to build speech, language, play, and social skills.” (Parker 1996)

  • “... SLPs are not the only professionals who target communication outcomes within the scope of their practice. Teachers, occupational therapists, reading specialists, and behavior analysts do so as well, either directly or indirectly. Therefore, cross-disciplinary collaboration is essential.” (Koenig and Gunter 2005)


Benefits of collaboration
Benefits of Collaboration

  • The creation of evidence-based therapeutic approaches and practices by individuals with combined expertise in ABA and SLP

  • The ability to improve the integration of support provided by SLP and ABA professionals as participants on home-, school-, and center-based intervention teams

  • A reduction in the number of reinvented wheels

    • Discrete trial to establish skills and NET to generalize

      (Koenig and Gerenser, 2006)


The role of the slp
The Role of the SLP

  • From the ASHA Position Statement “Roles and Responsibilities of Speech-Language Pathologists in Diagnosis, Assessment, and Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders Across the Life Span”

    • “Collaboration: Speech-language pathologists should collaborate with families, individuals with ASD, other professionals, support personnel, peers, and other invested parties to identify priorities and build consensus on a service plan and functional outcomes.”


What do the fields of slp and aba have in common
What do the fields of SLP and ABA have in common?

  • ABA and SLP are the treatment components most frequently requested by parents

  • ABA and SLP therapists are highly focused on the individual, his or her unique learning style, and the outcomes of treatment

  • Both ABA and SLP address skill deficits directly by teaching specific language behaviors rather than treating the problem indirectly using specialized diets or sensory stimulation programs

  • Both fields rely on procedures that are supported by evidence. Most therapists measure the child's performance by collecting data to make decisions about progress and potential changes in instruction.

    (Harchik, 2005)


Coordinating speech language pathology with an applied behavior analysis program parker 1996
Coordinating Speech-Language Pathology with an Applied Behavior Analysis Program (Parker, 1996)

  • 1. The SLP should develop language goals similar to those developed by the behavior program in order to facilitate generalization.

    • - Ex. ABA program is working on expressive labels with the Sd, “What is this?” The SLP’s goal can be to use the same vocabulary to request those items in a low structure, play context.


  • 2. The SLP should help to make the discrete-trial goals of the behavior program as communicative and functional as possible.

    • Ex. Work on requesting programs using objects of high interest.

  • 3. The SLP can add valuable information about speech-language goals that are being addressed in the behavior program.

    • Ex. Suggest a prompt to remediate specific sound errors such as placing a hand on the student’s throat to teach the /k/ sound.


  • 4. The SLP helps to ensure that all therapists are attempting to use similar vocabulary, commands, and toys in focusing on their goals.

  • 5. The SLP can offer information to the behavior team and parents on developmentally appropriate linguistic forms and the developmentally normal communication sequence.

    • Ex. Assists with the periodic reassessment of linguistic goals.


  • 6. The SLP can demonstrate how to incorporate specific goals into daily, preexisting activities, such as dinner, bath, and bedtime, which will be helpful with generalization and sequencing.

    • Ex. A daily activity such as cooking dinner can be used to teach sequencing skills and specific language forms. If the child is working on prepositions, the parent can say, “First we put the water in the pot, then the salt in, then the spaghetti in.”


  • 7. The SLP should help develop reinforcers- both tangible, such as food, stickers, and toys, and social, such as praise, hugs, and tickles.

  • 8. The SLP should assess the manner in which speech-language skills are used within the classroom or play group in order to ensure maximum benefit from these interactions.

    • - Ex. Suggest that the teacher give the child a toy that she knows another child likes, then encourage the two children to play together.

    • - Ex. Encourage the classroom teacher to set up activities that require a buddy, and pair the child with a peer who is both a strong language model and a friendly child.


  • 9. The SLP can also help troubleshoot specific linguistic problems.

    • Ex. If the child is having difficulty remembering the names of objects, the SLP can develop appropriate categorization and world knowledge tasks.

  • 10. The SLP can also aid in the diagnosis and treatment of concurrent disorders (e.g. apraxia or dysarthria)




The consultative model of service delivery bellone et al 2005
The Consultative Model of Service Delivery problems.(Bellone, et. al 2005)


Why should we use this model
Why should we use problems.this model?

  • “For individuals with ASD, exclusive provision of services through pull-out services does not address the underlying challenge of social communication inherent in the disorder, the issues of generalization, functional outcomes, or the importance of collaborating with significant communication partners.” (ASHA 2006)


Why con t
Why?, con’t problems.

  • Research on children with ASD suggests that the greatest effects of any direct treatment are reflected in the generalization of learning achieved by working with parents and classroom personnel.”(NRC 2001)


Traditional s l services are inadequate
Traditional S&L services are inadequate problems.

  • 1-5 hours treatment per week

  • SLP is sole instructor

  • Isolated setting

  • Skill generalization and maintenance difficult to achieve given these limitations

    (Bellone, et.al., 2005)


  • BUT… problems.

    • The pull-out model of service delivery continues to be the most used model for preschool and school-age children. (ASHA, 2004)

  • EVEN THOUGH…

    • There is no evidence supporting the long-term effectiveness of individual therapies implemented infrequently (e.g., once or twice a week), unless the strategies are taught to be used regularly by communication partners in the natural environment. (ASHA 2006)


Consultative s l services afford
Consultative S&L services afford… problems.

  • Consistent and continuous instruction throughout the child’s day

  • Skill generalization across people and settings in child’s natural environment

  • Skill maintenance through practice in naturally occurring and programmed opportunities

    (Bellone, et.al., 2005)


The role of the slp1
The role of the SLP problems.

  • Develop curriculum

  • Select data collection systems

  • Train teachers

  • Observe teachers & students

  • Attend meetings

  • Modify teaching procedures


The role of the teaching staff
The role of the problems.teaching staff

  • Provide multiple daily opportunities

  • Collect & sum data

  • Review data w/ SLP

  • Initiate questions, concerns

  • Troubleshoot w/ SLP

  • Incorporate changes into instruction


The consultative model in a public school
The consultative model in a public school problems.

  • School administrator contacted NECC’s consulting department

  • NECC directors met with teachers and administrators

    • Defined role of SLPs and teaching staff

  • A letter was sent home to parents inviting them to an informational meeting

    • After a follow up letter and phone call, 33% (n=24) selected the consultative model


The consultative model in a public school public school contract
The consultative model in a public school problems.Public School Contract

  • Services were provided in 8 children in 3 classrooms

  • 2 hours/mo of consultative (indirect) services from SLP

  • 40 hours/mo direct S&L instruction from lead classroom teacher

  • SLP consult with Head teachers

  • Head teachers train teaching assistants


The consultative model in a public school results
The consultative model in a public school problems.Results

  • Public school students made progress/met 98% of objectives (2005)

  • NECC students made progress/met 90% of objectives (2004)



Guide for professional conduct
Guide for Professional Conduct collaboration?

  • PRINCIPLE 11

    A physical therapist shall respect the rights, knowledge, and skills of colleagues and other healthcare professionals.

    11.1 Consultation

    • A physical therapist shall seek consultation whenever the welfare of the patient will be safeguarded or advanced by consulting those who have special skills, knowledge, and experience.

      11.2 Patient/Provider Relationships

    • A physical therapist shall not undermine the relationship(s) between his/her patient and other healthcare professionals.

      11.3 Disparagement

    • Physical therapists shall not disparage colleagues and other health care professionals. See Section 9 and Section 2.4.A.


Code of ethics
Code of Ethics collaboration?

  • Principle 7. Occupational therapy personnel shall treat colleagues and other professionals with respect, fairness, discretion, and integrity. (FIDELITY)


Guidelines for responsible conduct for behavior analysts
Guidelines for Responsible Conduct For Behavior Analysts collaboration?

  • 9.0 The Behavior Analyst's Responsibility to Colleagues.

    • Behavior analysts have an obligation to bring attention toand resolve ethical violations by colleagues, to make sure their data are accurate and presented truthfully, and they share data with colleagues.

      • 9.01 Ethical Violations by Colleagues

      • 9.02 Accuracy of Data

      • 9.03 Authorship and Findings

      • 9.04 Publishing Data

      • 9.05 Withholding data



  • A public program serving children in preschool through eighth grade diagnosed with Autism and related disabilities in Bergen County, NJ

  • “The speech-language department works collaboratively with the classroom teachers to promote various communication modes such as the Picture Exchange System, computerized voice output devices, sign language, and fostering expressive language.” (McKeon, et.al. 2006)


  • Does not employ related service personnel eighth grade diagnosed with Autism and related disabilities in Bergen County, NJ

  • Curriculum includes teaching programs that facilitate the development of language and fine and gross motor skills

  • Programs are implemented by instructional personnel throughout the day

  • Pull-out related services are rarely necessary because of the breadth and comprehensiveness of the curriculum

  • If services are deemed necessary, appropriate referrals or consultations are arranged by ALG staff(Meyer, et. al, 2006)


  • The Douglass School eighth grade diagnosed with Autism and related disabilities in Bergen County, NJ

    • “… each class is supported by a half-time speech-language specialist who provides individual and group therapy as well as consultative services to the preschool teachers. An adaptive physical education professional serves the preschool children on the three times a week and acts as a liaison for consulting professionals such as physical or occupational therapists.” (Harris, et. al, 2001)

  • Douglass Outreach

    • “Douglass Outreach employs five licensed part-time speech pathologists for speech-language services.” (Harris, et. al, 2001)


Princeton child development institute
Princeton Child Development Institute eighth grade diagnosed with Autism and related disabilities in Bergen County, NJ

  • Strong emphasis on language development

  • Does not employ specialists

  • All intervention personnel are trained to teach receptive and expressive language in every activity

    • Toilet training, outdoor play, lunchtime

  • Language instruction encompasses discrete trials, incidental teaching, time-delay procedures, and video-modeling procedures.

  • 36 of 41 children entered PCDI before 60 months of age and had no functional expressive language

    • The skills of these children currently range from using sounds as mandsto age appropriate verbal repertoires.

      (McClanahan and Krantz, 2001)


Recommendations for continued collaboration
Recommendations for Continued Collaboration eighth grade diagnosed with Autism and related disabilities in Bergen County, NJ

  • Share treatment efficacy data

  • Share innovative teaching procedures

  • Share basic information

  • Share successful collaboration experiences

  • Read articles in journals associated with the other profession

  • Share your concerns

  • Share lunch

    (Koenig and Gerenser, 2006)


State of New Jersey eighth grade diagnosed with Autism and related disabilities in Bergen County, NJ

Department of Human Services

Department Of Education

BOE - Local School / Sending School District

Board of Education

(Receiving School)

The Office of Early Care and Education (OECE)

Director of Special Services

SPAN/COSAC/

Autism Society of America

Child Service Team

School

ST

OT

PT

ART

Music

BCBA

Parents / Home / Family Physician

Dentist, Doctor

Principle

Child

Bus

Teacher

Siblings

Family Celebrations

Community

After school services (latch key)

Neighborhood, Shops, Restaurants

DDD

DVR

Employment

Sheltered Living


Collaboration with administration
Collaboration with Administration eighth grade diagnosed with Autism and related disabilities in Bergen County, NJ

  • Who are the possible collaborative partners?

  • How can we develop a collaborative relationship?


Njdoe press release february 20 2007
NJDOE Press Release: eighth grade diagnosed with Autism and related disabilities in Bergen County, NJ February 20, 2007

  • “Approximately 7,400 New Jersey children between the ages of 5 and 21 have been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders.”

  • “Fifty-five New Jersey school districts will share $15 million in state funds to establish, expand or enhance public school programs and services for students diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders…..”


Administration
Administration eighth grade diagnosed with Autism and related disabilities in Bergen County, NJ

  • State of New Jersey

    • Department of Human Services

      • The Office of Early Care & Education (OECE)

        • Division of Family Development

          • Department of Children and Families

          • Build NJ: Partners for Early Learning

        • Coalition of Infant/Toddler Educators (CITE)


Administration1
Administration eighth grade diagnosed with Autism and related disabilities in Bergen County, NJ

  • Child care services are coordinated through

    • Department of Human Services' Office of Early Care and Education for information, policy and resources

    • the Division of Family Development for child care operations

    • the Division of Developmental Disabilities

    • the Office of Licensing in the Department of Children and Families (DCF)

    • all in cooperation with Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies in every county

  • Services include:

    • information and referral to help parents locate child care resources and to  answer typical questions regarding types of child care

    • how to pay for care

    • how to become family day care and licensed child care providers.


Administration department of education
Administration eighth grade diagnosed with Autism and related disabilities in Bergen County, NJDepartment of Education

  • Division of Early Childhood Education

    • The Division of Early Childhood Education (DECE) of the New Jersey Department of Education has programmatic responsibility for preschool through 3rd grade (PK3) programs.

    • responsible for the development, implementation, and alignment of program components with a focus on standards, curricula, and assessment.

    • The creation of this division:

      • Acknowledges that a continuum of developmental stages constitute what is traditionally known as early childhood,

      • Protects New Jersey’s investment in high quality preschool by providing high quality kindergarten through third grade educational experiences for young children.

    • PK3 work will be organized within a framework that includes

      • structural (administration, class size, teacher-child ratio, etc.)

      • process (quality of classroom environments, teacher-child interactions, etc),

      • alignment (standards, curriculum, assessments) components that are associated with children’s social and academic outcomes.

    • The DECE’s work will be:

      • Research-based, with a series of advisory committees consisting of nationally recognized experts representing a range of early childhood-related areas

      • Cross-departmental to align all DOE PK3 initiatives,

      • Supportive of the efforts of the Division of School Improvement.


Office of special education programs
Office of Special Education Programs eighth grade diagnosed with Autism and related disabilities in Bergen County, NJ

  • Implements state and federal laws and regulations governing special education to ensure that pupils with disabilities in New Jersey receive full educational opportunities.

  • Provides statewide leadership through the development of policy and implementation documents and provides guidance to school districts and parents regarding the implementation of special education programs and services.

  • Responsible for administering all federal funds received by the state for educating pupils with disabilities ages 3 through 21.

  • Monitors the delivery of special education programs operated under state authority, provides mediation services to parents and school districts, processes hearings with the Office of Administrative Law, and conducts complaint investigations requested by the public.

  • Funds four learning resource centers (LRCs) that provide schools and parents with information services, materials circulation, technical assistance, consultation services and production services.

  • Plans and implements program and personnel development activities in areas such as implementing the least restrictive environment provision, planning the transition of students with disabilities from school to adulthood, planning programs and services for preschool children with disabilities,developing Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) and accessing individual rights and entitlements.


Learning resource center north 7 glenwood avenue 2nd floor suite 201 east orange new jersey 07017
LEARNING RESOURCE CENTER - NORTH eighth grade diagnosed with Autism and related disabilities in Bergen County, NJ7 Glenwood Avenue, 2nd Floor, Suite 201 East Orange, New Jersey 07017

  • Regions served: Bergen, Essex, Hudson, Morris, Passaic, Sussex, and Warren Counties

  • (973) 414-4491 - LRC General Service(973) 414-4496-FAX (973) 266-1849-TTY(973) 631-6349 - Preschool Technical Assistancee-mail: [email protected]


A collaborative model the child study team
A collaborative model eighth grade diagnosed with Autism and related disabilities in Bergen County, NJThe Child Study Team

  • Composed of teachers, specialists, administrators, and parents

  • Responsible for identifying and evaluating students aged 3 – 21 for special education programs and services.

  • Required to conduct both an educational evaluation and a psychological evaluation. (A neurological examination is also required before a child becomes eligible for special services.)

  • Develops an Individual Education Plan with parent/child.

  • Assigns a case manager

    • Visits receiving school or agency with parent/child

    • Organizes placement and transportation

      (Walther-Thomas, Korinek, & McLaughlin, 1999)


Iep meeting
IEP Meeting eighth grade diagnosed with Autism and related disabilities in Bergen County, NJ

  • Who should attend?

    • Student (if appropriate)

    • Parent

    • At least one general (or special) education teacher

    • At least one Child Study Team member

    • Student’s case manager

    • School district representatives

    • Persons invited by parent or school

    • Representatives of agencies providing payment for services


Typical school operations network council of the borough duly elected by town
Typical School Operations Network eighth grade diagnosed with Autism and related disabilities in Bergen County, NJCouncil of the Borough(duly elected by town)

  • Board of Education (elected by Council)

    • Superintendent

      • Hired by the BOE

      • to direct operations

        • Manage the fiscal year budget

        • Hire all school staff including Child Study Team members, teachers, and professional support staff (ST, OT, PT, BCBA, librarian, etc.)


School
School eighth grade diagnosed with Autism and related disabilities in Bergen County, NJ

  • “Effective collaboration emerges out of concerns by individuals who are like-minded in some ways and very different in others.” Walther-Thomas, Korinek, McLaughlin & Williams (2000)

  • Principals tend to focus on issues such as achievement trends, financial implications, professional development, student placement, professional schedules, and community relations.

  • Teachers are concerned with individual and group performance, IEP planning, and new responsibilities.

  • Families care about the impact of new initiatives on their children.


Improving student bus-riding behavior through a whole-school intervention (Putnam, Handler Ramirez-Platt & Luiselli, 2003)

  • Intervention developed through collaboration with students, school personnel and bus drivers

  • 624 students participated during 5 phases of the study

  • Disruptive behavior that resulted in referrals or suspensions was targeted and measured in an ABAB reversal design

  • Results indicated an overall decrease in bus suspensions


Parents have power
Parents have power! intervention (Putnam, Handler Ramirez-Platt & Luiselli, 2003)

  • Parents and children are the service users

  • Parents and children have the most to

    gain/lose regarding adequate effective

    services

  • The child is at the center and the parent needs

    to learn to collaborate with all the service

    providers and get them to collaborate with

    each other from the time of diagnosis to adult development.

  • Parents can enlist the work of nonprofit agencies and foundations to work with one another to “map the terrain” of a problem

  • They should talk to public officials about providing long-term funding for vital programs both in their community and at the State level.

  • Parents should know their rights and not accept anything less.


Suggestions for the future
Suggestions for the Future intervention (Putnam, Handler Ramirez-Platt & Luiselli, 2003)

  • develop and evaluate new methods of preparing early childhood special educators whose primary role now consists of consultation and collaboration, rather than teaching

  • Use the case method of instruction

  • Prepare professionals to become independent and competent problem solvers in the role of consultant

  • personnel training programs must be systemic in nature

    (Dybvik, 2004)


Suggestion for the future con t
Suggestion for the Future, con’t intervention (Putnam, Handler Ramirez-Platt & Luiselli, 2003)

  • changes in professional roles

  • create opportunities for interactive learning for professionals who function in a variety of roles, including administrative ones

  • ensure a shared knowledge and values base among all professionals who serve young children and families

  • Remedy roadblocks

    (Skrtic, 1991)


Suggestion for the future con t1
Suggestion for the Future, con’t intervention (Putnam, Handler Ramirez-Platt & Luiselli, 2003)

  • 21st century changes:

  • "the entire history of special education is (and should continue to be) one of incremental progress toward more socially inclusive instructional placements for students with disabilities"

  • Efforts aimed at early childhood community integration will continue to present profound challenges to practitioners in ECSE

  • Effectively change our roles in response to the changing times, in support of young children with and without disabilities growing up together

    (Skrtic, 1991)


References
References intervention (Putnam, Handler Ramirez-Platt & Luiselli, 2003)

  • Able-Boone, H., Crais, E. R., Downing, K., Preparation of Early Intervention Practitioners for Working with Young Children with Low Incidence Disabilities, Teacher Education and Special Education, v26 n1 p79-82

  • Allen K. D., Barone V.J., Kuhn, B., A Behavioral Prescription For Promoting Applied Behavior Analysis Within Pediatrics, Journal Of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1993, 26, 493-502

  • Allen K. D., Polaha J., Bridging The Disconnection Between Applied Research And Practice: A Review Of Treatments That Work:Empirically Supported Strategies For Managing Child Behavior Problems by E. Christophersen and S. Mortweet, Journal Of Applied Behavior Analysis 2003, 36, 141–146

  • American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2004c). 2004 Schools survey report: Caseload characteristics. Rockville, MD: Author.

  • American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2003b). A workload analysis approach for establishing speech-language caseload standards in the schools: Implementation guide. Rockville, MD: Author.

  • American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2006). Guidelines for Speech-Language Pathologists in Diagnosis, Assessment, and Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders Across the Life Span [Guidelines]. Available from www.asha.org/policy.

  • "APTA Guide for Professional Conduct." American Physical Therapy Association. Jan. 2004. American Physical Therapy Association. 10 Oct. 2007 <www.apta.org>.

  • Bellone, Beth, Nicole Conley, and Laura Hutt. Consultative Services for Children with Autism and Severe Developmental Disabilaties. 2005 ASHA Convention, 18 Nov. 2005, New England Center for Children. 12 Oct. 2007 <http://convention.asha.org/2005/handouts/293_Hutt_Laura_071407_112905091151.pdf>.


  • Fawcett, S. B., 1991, Some values guiding community research and action. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 24, 621-636

  • Friend, M., & Cook, L. (1996). Interactions: Collaboration skills for school professionals (2nd ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.

  • "Foundations of Service Provision in the New Jersey Early Intervention System." New Jersey Early Intervention System. 17 Jan. 2005. 21 Oct. 2007 <http://www.njeis.org/NJFoundationsSP.pdf>.

  • Gerenser, Joanne, and Mareile Koenig. "SLP- ABA: Collaborating to Support Individuals with Communication Impairments." The Journal of Speech Language Pathology - Applied Behavior Analysis 1 (2006): 2-10. 23 Oct. 2007 <http://www.behavior-analyst-today.com/SLP-ABA-VOL-1/SLP-ABA-1-1.pdf>.

  • Geroski, Rodgers and Breen, 1997, Using the DSM-IV to enhance collaboration among school counselors, clinical counselors, and primary care physicians, Journal of Counseling and Development, 75, 231-239

  • Handleman, J.S., & Harris, S.L. (2001). Preschool Education Programs for Children with Autism. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

  • Handleman, J.S., & Harris, S.L. (2006). School-Age Education Programs for Children with Autism. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

  • Harchik, Alan. "Children with Autism Benefit From the Expertise of Speech and Language Specialists." News for Parents.Org. 2005. The May Institute. 23 Oct. 2007 <http://www.newsforparents.org/expert_autism_speech_language.html>.

  • Koenig, Mareile, and Cheryl Gunter."Fads in Speech-Language Pathology." Controversial Therapies for Developmental Disabilities. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,, 2005. 215-234.

  • Maurice, C., Green,G., & Luce, S.C. (1996). Behavior Interventions for Young Children with Autism. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.


  • McKeon, John, Kathleen Vuoncino, Rebecca Brenkert, Karen Dinnell-Lopresti, Ellen Doyle, Mark Lampert, Michelle Madden-Perez, and Scott Rossig. "The Valley Program." School-Age Education Programs for Children with Autism. Austin: Pro-Ed, Inc., 2006. 247-268.

  • Nakken. H., Postema, K., A review of salient elements defining team collaboration in paediatric rehabilitation, Clinical Rehabilitation 2007; 21:

  • National Research Council. (2001). Educating children with autism. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, Committee on Educational Interventions for Children with Autism, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education.

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