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Chapter 6 Transport fundamentals

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  1. Chapter 6 Transport fundamentals • Transportation is a vital component in the design and management of logistics systems. • About 1/3 – 2/3 of total logistics costs. • The focus of this chapter • Thefacilities and services that make up the transportation system. • The rates (costs) and performance of the various transport services that a manager might select. Transport Fundamentals

  2. Importance of an effective transportation system 1. Greater competition • With a poorly transportation system, the market is limited surrounding the point of production. • EX:fresh fruits, vegetables, perishable products. Rapid shipment. Transport Fundamentals

  3. Importance of an effective transportation system 2. Economies of scale • Wider markets can result in lower production costs. • Inexpensive transportation permitsdecoupling of markets and production sites. • EX:auto parts manufactured in Taiwan, Indonesia, South Korea, and Mexico are used in assembly operations in the U.S.A. . Transport Fundamentals

  4. Importance of an effective transportation system 3. Reduced price • As transportation becomes more efficient, will to reduce product prices. • EX:Crude oil use the large supertanker. Transport Fundamentals

  5. Five basic modes(single-service choices) • Rail • Truck • Air • Water • pipeline Transport Fundamentals

  6. Transportation service characteristics 1.Price See Table 6-1. 2.Transit time and variability See Figure 6-1. 3.Loss and damage maybe to provide increased protective packaging. Transport Fundamentals

  7. For-hire service The rate charged for the movement of goods between two points Pickup at origin Delivery at destination Insurance Preparing the goods for shipment The service is owned by the shipper Fuel Labor Maintenance Depreciation of equipment Administrative costs Price Transport Fundamentals

  8. The way of Measurement Door to door 600哩以上 空運最快 卡車整車(TL)其次 卡車零擔(LTL)第三 鐵路整車(CL)第四 小於600哩 航空與卡車運輸不相上下 Average delivery time Highest  Rail Lowest  Air Variability relative to the average transit time (變動時間/運輸時間) The least dependable  Air The most dependable Truckload Transit Time and Variability • Transit Time • Variability Transport Fundamentals

  9. 鐵路運輸 • 特徵 • 投資成本龐大:土地,軌道,車輛,終點設備,維護 • 路線容量高 • 具自動控制的能力 • 專用路權 • 車路一體或車路分離 Transport Fundamentals

  10. 鐵路運輸(續) • 優點 • 長途運量大 • 安全性高 • 運價低廉 • 受氣候限制小 Transport Fundamentals

  11. 鐵路運輸(續) • 缺點 • 維修不易 • 缺乏彈性 • 緊急量小之零擔運輸 • 路線 • 目標顯著易遭破壞 • 編組費時 Transport Fundamentals

  12. 公路運輸 • 特徵 • 車路分離 • 富於機動性 • 及門運送服務(door to door service) • 公共性高 Transport Fundamentals

  13. 公路運輸(續) • 優點 • 方便性高 • 及門運輸 • 限時或臨時急需之貨物運送 • 短程運輸為所有運輸工具最快者 • 運用靈活 • 普及性高 • 經營容易 • 缺點 • 運載量小 • 安全性較低 Transport Fundamentals

  14. 企業自用車隊的優缺點 • 優點 • 減少運輸時間 • 方便排定行程 • 減少產品損壞程度 • 增加公司競爭力 • 提供租用車隊無法提供之服務(司機兼推銷員) • 缺點 • 增加固定成本與營運成本 Transport Fundamentals

  15. 水道運輸 • 特徵 • 便於利用 • 航行速度慢 • 國際競爭激烈 • 具伸縮性 Transport Fundamentals

  16. 水道運輸(續) • 優點 • 運輸量大 • 調度容易 • 運價低廉 • 以單位成本而言,為所有運輸工具最低者 • 續航力強 • 缺點 • 易受天候影響 • 受港口限制 • 速度慢 • 各運輸工具中速度最慢者 Transport Fundamentals

  17. 海運業之經營業務 • 定期船業務(liner service) • 不定期船業務(tramp service) • 專用船業務(private vessels) Transport Fundamentals

  18. 定期船業務(件貨運送業務) • 意義 • 經營固定船舶、固定航線、固定船期、固定運價及固定港埠碼頭,對公眾提供客、貨運輸服務之海運業務。 • 船舶型態 • 雜貨船(general cargo or break bulk ship) • 貨櫃船(container ship) • 子母船(Lighter-Aboard Ship,LASH) • 駛進駛出船(Roll On /Roll Off,RO/RO Ship)(船背運輸,fishyback) Transport Fundamentals

  19. 不定期船業務 • 意義 • 經營無固定船舶、航線、船期、運價、港埠碼頭倉棧之海運業務。多使用專用散裝船為主要運送工具,並以散裝貨物(如媒、糖、鹽、礦砂等)為主,所承運之貨物有一定之流向與季節性,且運價較定期船為低。 • 營運方式 • 論程傭船(voyage charter) • 論時傭船(time charter) • 光船租賃(bare boat charter) Transport Fundamentals

  20. 論程傭船(航次傭船) • 船貨雙方多經由經紀人(broker)或代理商(agent)之媒介,洽訂書面協議,規定船東應負責按照運送契約之規定條件及運費,以船舶貨櫃之一部分或全部,供給傭船人裝運指定貨物,由一港或數港裝運約定噸量之貨物,運往約定港口或區域交貨,其運費係依照實裝或實卸貨物重量或體積計算。(叫客式計程車) Transport Fundamentals

  21. 論時傭船(定期傭船) • 在約定時間內,將船舶貨艙全部租予傭船人營運使用,由其在約定範圍內自行抉擇航線及貨運業務,然其船長及船員由船東指派,船員人數須充足且資格符合規定,傭船人有權更換不適任之船長或高級船員。傭船人還船時須保持交船時之原狀,交船、還船均應由公證人檢查船況及油水。(承租遊覽車) Transport Fundamentals

  22. 光船租賃(空船出租) • 由船東將未配備船員及供應品之光船或空船,在約定時間內由租船人自行營運使用,並由其指定船長、僱用船員、支付薪給;並由租船人供應配備,且負擔全部運轉費用,支付全部支出款及有效修護船體及機器,通常實際船東對於船舶營運範圍或載運之貨物,均不予限制,但東仍有權要求租船人更換船長或高級船員。(租車公司之租車) Transport Fundamentals

  23. 專用船業務 • 公司自行擁有船舶或長期租賃船舶用以運輸貨物。 Transport Fundamentals

  24. 權宜船籍(Flag of Convenience) • 船舶所有人為求降低船運成本,而將其船舶選在稅低、無海員工會及限制較少的非本國籍之國家入籍。 Transport Fundamentals

  25. 航空運輸 • 特徵 • 飛機與機場分離 • 遠距速達 • 用途廣泛 • 不受地理環境影響 Transport Fundamentals

  26. 航空運輸(續) • 優點 • 速率高 • 不受地形限制 • 航線選擇自由 • 缺點 • 運費高 • 運量受限 • 可及性較差 • 受天候影響 Transport Fundamentals

  27. 管道運輸 • 特徵 • 生產與運銷一元化 • 及門服務 • 高度專業化 • 作業自動化 • 不需包裝 Transport Fundamentals

  28. 管道運輸(續) • 優點 • 輸送量大 • 不受天候影響 • 運費低 • 缺點 • 易遭偷竊 • 限運液,氣體貨物 • 維修不易 • 速度慢 Transport Fundamentals

  29. 運輸方式的比較 Transport Fundamentals

  30. 複合運輸(Intermodal Transportation) • 定義 • 貨物從託運人到收貨人的運輸過程中,經由兩種以上的運來承運,但卻採用單一費率或採聯合計費,並且共同負擔運送責任之服務方式。 • 目的 • 使貨物在起訖點的流程中,以最短的時間及最經濟的方式來達成。 Transport Fundamentals

  31. 複合運輸的型態 Transport Fundamentals

  32. Trailer on flatcar (piggyback) • rail and truck combinations • A blend of the convenience and flexibility of trucking with the long-haul economy. • The rate is usually less than for trucking alone. • Rail can share in some traffic • door-to-door Transport Fundamentals

  33. Transport Fundamentals

  34. 複合運輸的經濟效益 • 總體經濟效益 • 降低道路的負荷 • 降低政府對鐵路業的補貼 • 節省能源 • 安全性較高 • 個別廠商效益 • 節省人力 • 貨物的聯運費用,往往比公路貨運收費低 • 減少搬運成本及貨物損失 • 降低運輸時間 Transport Fundamentals

  35. Containerized freight standard container • 8 by 8 by 20 feet (Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit,TEU) • 8 by 8 by 40 feet • container on flatcar,COFC • water-truck service • air-truck service Transport Fundamentals

  36. 貨櫃運輸的經濟效益 • 屬於託運人的經濟效益 • 節省包裝費用 • 節省倉儲費用 • 貨物運送較為安全,可節省保護費用 • 節省運費支出 • 縮短運輸時間 Transport Fundamentals

  37. 貨櫃運輸的經濟效益(續) • 屬於運送人的經濟效益 • 裝卸迅速且運量大 • 節省管理費用 • 較為安全,可節省理賠費用 • 節省港埠費用 • 增加營運收益 Transport Fundamentals

  38. Agencies • Own little or no line-haul equipment • Handle numerous small shipments • Consolidation • Pickup and delivery service Transport Fundamentals

  39. Transportation agencies1 • 1.Freight forwarder • for-hire carriers of freight. • for pickup and delivery operations. • Advantage:small shipment with lower price • 2. Shipper’s associations • Nonprofit basis • Designed to perform services similar to those of freight forwarders • Act as a single shipper in order to obtain volume rates Transport Fundamentals

  40. Transportation agencies2 3. Transport brokers bring shipper and carriers together by providing timely information about rates, routes, and capabilities. Transport Fundamentals

  41. Small-shipment service Parcel post – U.S.A. Postal service - United Parcel Service (UPS) - Federal Express (FedEx) specialize in small-shipment services. Transport Fundamentals

  42. TR=P*Q $ ownership; make TVC=FC+V*Q Contract; buy BEP FC Q Company-controlled transportation1 • Company ownership of equipment or contracting for transportation services. • Break–even analysis. Transport Fundamentals

  43. Company-controlled transportation2 • Shipping volume is high • Special requirements • Fast delivery with very high dependability • Special equipment not generally available • Special handling of the freight • A service that is available when needed Transport Fundamentals

  44. Transport cost characteristics • Fixed cost:roadway acquisition, maintenance terminal facilities, transport equipment, carrier administration. • Variable costs(line-haul costs):fuel, labor,equipment maintenance, handling, pickup and delivery. Transport Fundamentals

  45. Transportation rates 1.Volume-related rates 2.Distance-related rates a.uniform rates b.proportional rates c.tapering rates d.blanket rates 3.Demand-related rates See Box6.5 Example. Transport Fundamentals

  46. Volume-Related Rate • Quote directly on the quantity shipped. • Small shipment: minimum charge or any-quantity (AQ) rate. • Large shipment (less than a full-vehicle-load quantity): less-than-vehicle-load • Large shipment( equal or exceed the designated vehicle-load quantity): vehicle-load rate. • Quote a shipper special rates on particular commodities. (high volume) Transport Fundamentals

  47. Distance-Related Rates — Uniform Rates • When the delivering cost are not distance related. Transport Fundamentals

  48. Distance-Related Rates — Proportional Rates • This method does adversely discriminate against the long-haul shipper in favor of the short-haul shipper. • Terminal charges are not recovered on the short haul. • Truckload rates can have this characteristic because handling costs are minimal. Transport Fundamentals

  49. Distance-Related Rates — Tapering Rates • A major reason for this shape is that with increased distance of the shipment, terminal costs and other fixed charges are distributed over more miles. Transport Fundamentals

  50. Distance-Related Rates — Blanket Rates • Single rates that cover a wide area at the origin, destination, or both. • To meet the rates of competitors and to simplify rate publications and administration led carriers to establish blanket rate structures. Transport Fundamentals