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Lease Negotiations. Annie’s Project Coweta Oklahoma February 20, 2007. Cash and share lease agreements. What portion of the income do I receive? What portion of the costs do I contribute? What portion of the risk do I bear? What crop and land management practices will be followed?

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lease negotiations

Lease Negotiations

Annie’s Project

Coweta Oklahoma

February 20, 2007

cash and share lease agreements
Cash and share lease agreements
  • What portion of theincomedoI receive?
  • What portion of the costsdo I contribute?
  • What portion of the riskdo I bear?
  • What crop and land management practices will be followed?
  • What will be the condition of the land and improvements at the end of the lease?
cash lease agreements
Cash lease agreements
  • Tenant pays landlord a fixed amount per acre per year.
  • May be single or multi-year.
  • Government payments go to tenant.
  • Can add flexible component.
cash lease advantages
Landlord

More stable income

Payment can be scheduled for any time of year

Eliminates or greatly reduces cash expenditures

Reduced management responsibility

Shifts risk

Fewer potential conflicts about sharing and marketing crops

Tenant

Total managerial freedom

Fewer chances of conflict over decisions

Receive all benefits of a “good year” and superior management

Eliminates time and effort associated with dividing crops and input purchases as well as the related record keeping

Cash lease advantages
cash lease disadvantages
Landlord

Can become inequitable due to changes in prices, costs and technology

Fewer opportunities for income tax management

Will not realize benefits of good price and/or yield years if the agreement is not flexible

Greater chance of soil depletion, neglected improvements

Tenant

Must shoulder all the price and yield risk if the agreement lacks flexibility

Large capital requirements for inputs

May be required to pay part of the rent early in the year before the crop is planted

Landowners may attribute above average yields to soil rather than management

Cash lease disadvantages
adding flexibility to the cash agreement
Adding flexibility to the cash agreement
  • Can reduce need for frequent adjustments
  • Distributes more of risk
    • Price risk adjustment
      • Multiply base rate by actual price/estimated price
    • Yield risk adjustment
      • Multiply base rate by actual yield/estimated yield
share lease agreements
Share lease agreements
  • Landlord and tenant share proportionally in costs and risks of production, then share benefits accordingly
  • May be single or multi-year
  • Government payments shared in same proportion as crop
share lease advantages
Landlord

Receives benefits of good price and/or yield years

Land and improvements are more likely to be maintained

Relieved of some operational decisions

Easier to establish “material participation”

Tenant

Less capital may be required

Less experienced tenants can benefit from the landowner’s managerial input

Share price and yield risk with landowner

Share lease advantages
share lease disadvantages
Tenant

Need to discuss management practices with landlord on a continuing basis

Joint decisions result in more opportunities for conflicts

Must share benefits of a “good year” and superior management

Must maintain records of shared expenses and divide crops

Landlord

More variable income and increased risk

Need to discuss management practices with tenant on a continuing basis

Increased capital requirements associated with share of cash expenses

Must maintain records of shared expenses

Increased responsibilities

More possibilities for conflicts with tenant

Share lease disadvantages
put the agreement in writing
Put the agreement in writing!
  • Encourages understanding by both parties
  • Serves as a reminder of terms agreed upon
  • Legal resource and guide for heirs

Consult with a lawyer.

terms that should be specified in all agreements
Terms that should be specified in all agreements
  • Parties to lease and description
    • Date the lease is entered into
    • Names and addresses of the landlord and tenant
    • Legal description of the leased property
    • Binding to heirs
    • Signatures of the landlord and tenant
terms that should be specified in all agreements1
Terms that should be specified in all agreements
  • General terms
    • Beginning and ending dates of the lease
    • Rental amount, respective shares
    • When and how rent will be paid and penalties for late payment
    • Who will carry insurance on the property and crop
    • Statement that no partnership is intended
    • Conditions under which the tenant may or may not sublease the property
    • Records to be kept
terms that should be specified in all agreements2
Terms that should be specified in all agreements
  • Termination
    • When and how the lease may be terminated
    • Requirements for notice of termination
    • Acts of the tenant that would constitute default of the lease
    • Reimbursement provisions for crop nutrients, lime and/or completed fieldwork upon termination of the lease
    • Tenant’s rights if the property is transferred or condemned during the lease period.
    • Reimbursement provisions for a crop in the ground when the lease is terminated.
terms that should be specified in all agreements3
Terms that should be specified in all agreements
  • Operation and maintenance
    • Desired or prohibited farming practices, including types of chemicals that may not be used on the property
    • Process of measuring and maintaining soil fertility and pH levels
    • Which party is responsible for controlling noxious weeds
    • Which party is responsible for maintaining fences
    • Whether the tenant has the right to make improvements and be compensated for improvements, terms for reimbursing tenant
terms that should be specified in all agreements4
Terms that should be specified in all agreements
  • Operation and maintenance (continued)
    • Stocking rate
    • Whether the tenant has the right to utilize improvements made by the landlord.
    • Provisions for soil-conservation practices.
    • Statement regarding the existing environmental status of the property and responsibility to minimize activities that may cause contamination.
    • Use of non-cropland, garden plots, trees, buildings, grain bins, pasture or other areas not rented for cropland.
terms that should be specified in all agreements5
Terms that should be specified in all agreements
  • Landlord rights and government payments
    • Landlord's right to enter the property for specific purposes (entry, hunting and fishing, harvesting pecans)
    • Landlord's right to a security interest in the crops or other provisions for ensuring payment.
    • Statement of which party will participate in federal farm programs, including responsibility for eligibility and receipt of payments.
    • Nature of landlord participation in management (may impact income and self-employment, taxes, social security payments, and estate planning)
terms that should be specified in all agreements6
Terms that should be specified in all agreements
  • Arbitration of differences
    • Provision that any amendments must be in writing and signed by both parties.
    • Procedure for resolving disputes, including the applicable state statutes.
terms that should be specified in all agreements7
Terms that should be specified in all agreements
  • Crop-share provisions
    • Sharing of crops and tenant's contribution of machinery and labor.
    • Sharing of operating expenses.
    • Storage and/or delivery of landlord’s share of crops.
    • Compensation upon termination of the lease.
    • What records are to be kept by whom and how will this information be shared.
terms that should be specified in all agreements8
Terms that should be specified in all agreements
  • Miscellaneous
    • Willingness to sign security agreement
    • Plan to pay property taxes, repairs, insurance on improvements
    • Compliance with FSA, NRCS, other agency requirements
    • Mineral rights
    • Other environmental clauses
what is fair what is not fair
What is fair? What is not fair?
  • Fair does not equal legal.
  • Legal does not equal fair.

Everything is negotiable up front.

determining a fair cash rent
Determining a Fair Cash Rent
  • Market approach
  • Landlord’s ownership costs plus return to equity
  • Residual income method
slide22

Northcentral

Northwest

East

Southwest

Oklahoma Farmland Leasing Regions

average annual dryland cash rental rates acre
Average Annual Dryland Cash Rental Rates ($/acre)

Source: OSU CR-216 and CR-230, 2005

determining a fair cash rent1
Determining a Fair Cash Rent
  • Landlord’s ownership costs plus return to equity
    • Property taxes on land $2
    • Improvements
      • Repairs and maintenance
      • Property taxes
      • Insurance
      • Depreciation
    • Desired return on equity $800 @ 4%
determining a fair cash rent2
Determining a Fair Cash Rent
  • Residual income method
    • Returns
      • Grain, government payments, other
    • Variable costs
      • Seed, fertilizer, chemicals, fuel, harvest costs, labor, etc.
    • Fixed costs
      • Machinery and equipment depreciation, interest on investment, taxes, insurance
    • Management fee (e.g., 5-8% of gross receipts)
review wheat budget
Review wheat budget
  • Establish expected returns to overhead, land, risk, management
  • Determine what each party is contributing.
determining a fair share rent
Determining a fair share rent
  • Determine the percent contribution of total value of fixed items contributed by each party
  • Share variable expenses in the same percentage as crop is shared
  • Adjust share arrangements to reflect the impact of new technologies, improvements, land quality
  • Share total returns in the same proportion as total expenses are contributed
  • Compensate tenant at the end of the lease for the unused portion of investments
valuing fixed contributions
Valuing fixed contributions
  • Land
    • “Safe” rate
    • Divide annual cash rent by per acre land value
    • Divide per acre net income by per acre land value
  • Machinery and equipment
  • Management
    • Percent of average capital invested
    • Percent of gross farm receipts
  • Labor
tenant s share of herbicides
Tenant’s Share of Herbicides

Source: OSU CR-230, 2005

slide32

Tenant’s Share of Lime Application Costs

N=34

Source: OSU CR-230, 2005

effect of land quality and farm cost on crop share rental arrangements

Annual yield per acre

Annual operating cost per acre ($)

Costs

2/3 tenant

½ tenant

Most productive land

Least productive land

Effect of land quality and farm cost on crop-share rental arrangements
coming to agreement
Coming to agreement....
  • Both tenants and landlords should estimate their contributions to production
  • Use of area standards or traditions may not be in the best interest of either party
  • Worksheets and spreadsheets are available to summarize contributions and analyze alternatives
  • Equitable agreements are negotiated
references
References

http://osuextra.okstate.edu/, choose Department, Agricultural Economics

  • Oklahoma Pasture Rental Rates, OSU CR-216
  • Oklahoma Cropland Rental Rates, OSU CR-230
  • Developing Cash Lease Agreements, OSU F-214
  • Developing Share Lease Agreements, OSU F-215
  • Tax Aspects of Leasing, OSU WF-940
  • Tax Consequences: Cash vs. Crop Share Leases, OSU WF-941
  • Breeding Livestock Lease Agreements, OSU WF-571
  •  Stocker Lease Agreements, OSU WF-572

Also, MidWest Plan Service website located at http://www.mwpshq.org/

to do
To do
  • Develop written agreements
  • Review agreements annually in advance of the renewal date
  • Update, modify agreements when the operating environment changes significantly