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Unit 13: Treatment of Psychological Disorders. Unit Overview. The Psychological Therapies Evaluating Psychotherapies The Biomedical Therapies Preventing Psychological Disorders. Introduction. History of treatment Philippe Pinel Dorothea Dix Psychotherapy

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Unit 13: Treatment of Psychological Disorders


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    Presentation Transcript
    1. Unit 13:Treatment of Psychological Disorders

    2. Unit Overview • The Psychological Therapies • Evaluating Psychotherapies • The Biomedical Therapies • Preventing Psychological Disorders

    3. Introduction • History of treatment • Philippe Pinel • Dorothea Dix • Psychotherapy • Biomedical therapy • Eclectic approach

    4. The Psychological Therapies“How does this make you feel?”

    5. Psychoanalysis • Aims of therapy • Childhood impulses and conflicts • Insight – origins • Psychosexual stages

    6. PsychoanalysisMethods • Methods • Free association • Resistance • Interpretation of the meaning • Dream analysis • Latent content • Transference

    7. PsychoanalysisPsychodynamic Therapy • Psychodynamic therapy • Aims of psychodynamic therapy • Similarities with psychoanalysis • Differences with psychoanalysis • Briefer & less expensive • Current symptoms over origin

    8. Humanistic Therapies • Insight therapies focus more on: • the present rather than the past • conscious rather than the unconscious • taking immediate responsibility • promoting growth instead of curing • “Clients” vs. “patients”

    9. Humanistic Therapies • Client-centered therapy • Nondirective therapy • Genuineness, acceptance, and empathy • Accept and understand • Carl Rogers: “For myself, though I am very well aware of the incredible amount of destructive, cruel, malevolent behavior in today’s world—from the threats of war to the senseless violence in the streets—I do not find that this evil is inherent in human nature.” • Active listening • Paraphrase • Invite clarification • Reflect feelings • Unconditional positive regard • Too much of a good thing?

    10. Behavior Therapies • Behavior Therapy – problem behaviors are the problems • Classical conditioning techniques (Pavlov) • Operant conditioning techniques (Skinner)

    11. Behavior TherapiesClassical Conditioning Therapies • Counterconditioning • Exposure therapies • Systematic desensitization • Virtual reality exposure therapy • Aversive conditioning - reverse

    12. Behavior TherapiesAversion Therapy

    13. Behavior TherapiesAversion Therapy

    14. Behavior TherapiesAversion Therapy

    15. Behavior TherapiesOperant Conditioning • Behavior modification • Does it last? Is it ethical? • Token economy – institution • Participated in one?

    16. Cognitive TherapiesIt’s the Thought That Counts • Cognitive therapy • Beck’s therapy for depression • Reverse catastrophizing beliefs • Cognitive- behavioral therapy

    17. Cognitive Therapies

    18. Group and Family Therapies • Group therapy • AA • Family therapy – family is a system • Preventative • Find your role • More people; cheaper

    19. Comparison of Psychotherapies

    20. Evaluating Psychotherapies

    21. Is Psychotherapy Effective? • Regression toward the mean • Client’s perceptions • Clinician’s perceptions • Outcome research: • Meta-analysis • Treated more likely to improve

    22. The Relative Effectiveness of Different Therapies • Evidence-based practice • No individual therapy superior

    23. Evaluating Alternative Therapies • Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) - PTSD • Light exposure therapy • Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)

    24. Types of Therapists

    25. Biomedical Therapies

    26. Introduction • Biomedical therapy- act on nervous system • Drugs • Electroconvulsive therapy • Magnetic impulses • Psychosurgery

    27. Drug Therapies • Psychopharmacology – effects of drugs on mind/behavior • Factors to consider with drug therapy: • Normal recovery rate of untreated patients • Placebo effect • Double blind procedure

    28. Drug Therapies

    29. Drug Therapies

    30. Drug Therapies

    31. Drug Therapies

    32. Drug TherapiesAntipsychotic Drugs • Antipsychotic drugs • Psychosis – reality • Chlorpromazine (Thorazine) • dopamine • Atypical antipsychotics (Clozaril) • Positive and negative symptoms • Dopamine and serotonin receptors

    33. Drug TherapiesAntianxiety Drugs • Antianxiety drugs - CNS activity • Xanax, Valium • Physiological dependence

    34. Drug TherapiesAntidepressant Drugs • Antidepressant drugs • Use with mood and anxiety disorders • Fluoxetine (Prozac), Paxil • Selective-serotonin-reuptake inhibitors • SSRIs • Neurogenesis

    35. Drug TherapiesAntidepressant Drugs

    36. Drug TherapiesMood-Stabilizing Medications • Mood-stabilizing medications • Bipolar disorder • Lithium

    37. Brain StimulationElectroconvulsive Therapy • Electroconvulsive therapy • Procedure • Anesthetic • Muscle relaxant • Severe depression • Problems/side effects • Memory loss

    38. Brain StimulationElectroconvulsive Therapy

    39. Brain StimulationAlternative Neurostimulation Therapies • Depression • Magnetic Stimulation • Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulations (rTMS) • Surface • No seizures or memory loss • Deep-Brain Stimulation • Targeted brain area

    40. Brain StimulationAlternative Neurostimulation Therapies

    41. Psychosurgery • Psychosurgery – removal or destruction of brain tissue • Lobotomy • History • Procedure: • Disconnect emotion from thought • Side effects • Use today

    42. Therapeutic Life-Style Change • Integrated biopsychosocial system • Therapeutic life-style change • Aerobic exercise • Adequate sleep • Light exposure • Social connection • Anti-rumination • Nutritional supplements

    43. Preventing Psychological Disorders

    44. Preventing Psychological Disorders • Resilience – personal strength • Preventing psychological disorders • Focus on mental health over mental illness

    45. Review & Extra Fun • Myers Review Link • Biblical counseling resource - CCEF • Group Therapy – Alcoholics Anonymous • Bob Newhart “STOP IT!” skit • Therapy humor • Quackwatch • Virtual therapy?

    46. The End!