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Muscular System. Stephen Springer Nolan Wool. Functions. Fluid Propulsion. Movement. Posture. Generate Heart Beat. Structure of Skeletal Muscle. Nervous Tissue. Skeletal Muscle Tissue. Connective Tissue. Blood. Structure of a Muscle Fiber. Cylindrical Sarcolemma covering

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muscular system

Muscular System

Stephen Springer

Nolan Wool

functions
Functions

Fluid Propulsion

Movement

Posture

Generate Heart Beat

structure of skeletal muscle
Structure of Skeletal Muscle

Nervous Tissue

Skeletal Muscle Tissue

Connective Tissue

Blood

structure of a muscle fiber
Structure of a Muscle Fiber
  • Cylindrical
  • Sarcolemma
    • covering
  • Sarcoplasm
    • cytoplasm
  • Myofibrils
  • Myosin
  • Actin
relationship
Relationship:

Neuromuscular Junction

  • Stimulus travels from:

Brain Neuron Neuron Motor Muscle

Axon End Plate

myosin and actin
Myosin and Actin

Myosin

Actin

  • Thick
  • Heads/Cross bridges
  • Thin
  • Binding Sites
sliding filament theory
Sliding Filament Theory
  • Heads of myosin attach to binding sites of actin
  • Myosin heads swivel
  • ATP releases myosin heads
  • Muscle relaxes
muscle contraction
Muscle Contraction

Calcium released from sarcoplasmic reticulum exposes the binding sites

  • Calcium binds to troponin
  • Tropomyosin pulls aside
  • Binding sites on actin exposed
muscle contraction cont
Muscle Contraction (Cont.)
  • Myosin heads bind to actin
  • Power stroke occurs (swivel of heads)
  • Muscle contraction occurs
muscle contraction cont1
Muscle Contraction (Cont.)
  • ATP binds to myosin
    • Linkage is released
  • ATP splits into ADP and Phosphorous
    • Causes the myosin head to cock back
  • Cycle continues*
    • *If there are ATP & Calcium Ions
energy and oxygen
Energy and Oxygen

Energy:

  • Glycolysis anaerobic
  • Cellular Respiration aerobic

ATP

Contraction

fatigue
Fatigue

Definition: When a muscle is exercised strenuously for a prolonged period and loses its ability to contract.

Glycolysis

  • Fast-twitch muscle
  • Oxygen Debt
    • Lactic acid build up
  • +2 ATP

Cause:

  • Low pH
  • Accumulation of Lactic Acid

Cellular Respiration

  • Slow-twitch muscle
  • Includes the process of Glycolysis
  • +34 ATP
cramping
Cramping

Definition: A painful condition in which a muscle undergoes a sustained involuntary contraction

Causes:

  • Lack of ATP
  • Changes in extracellular fluid
  • Uncontrolled stimulation
superficial muscles
Superficial Muscles

Frontalis

Zygomaticus

Sternocleidomastoid

Trapezius

Deltiod

Pectoralis Major

Biceps Bracii

Expeliarmis

*Harry Potter

Rectus Abdominus

External Oblique

Sartorius

Gracilis

Adductor Longus

Rectus Femoris

VastusLateralis

FibularisLongus

Tibialis Anterior

Gastrocnemius

Soleus

Extensor DigitorumLongus

posterior superficial muscles
Posterior Superficial Muscles

Occipitalis

Sternocleidomastoid

Trapezius

Deltoid

Triceps Bracii

Infraspinatud

Brachialis

Teres Major

Rhomboideus

LatissimusDorsi

Nobody Cares

Gluteus Medius

Gluteus Maximus

Gluteus Maximus

Adductor Magnus

Biceps Femorous

Semitendinosus

Semimembranosus

Gostrocnemius

Soleus

FibularisLongus

Calcaneal Tendon

origin insertion
Origin & Insertion

Origin:

The immovable end of a muscle

Insertion:

The moveable end of a muscle

prime movers synergists antagonists
Prime Movers, Synergists, & Antagonists

Synergists:

  • Helper muscles

Prime Mover (agonist):

  • Mainly responsible for movement

Antagonists:

  • Resist prime mover
recruitment and muscle tone
Recruitment and Muscle Tone

Muscle Tone:

  • Nerve impulses continuously sent from spinal cord

Recruitment:

  • Increases number

of active muscle fibers

  • Summation or Tetanic

Increase of weight

summation and sustained contraction
Summation and Sustained Contraction

Summation:

  • Combined individual

twitches

  • Eventual relaxation

Sustained Contraction (tetanic):

  • Combined individual

twitches

  • Doesn’t relax
  • Rigor mortis
diseases
Diseases

Myotonic Dystrophy—An Expanding Gene:

  • Stronger and more threatening with each generation
  • RNA too large to leave nucleas, gets copied, passed to next generation continuously
  • Weakness of limbs

Hereditary Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy:

  • Actin not anchored to

z-line properly

  • Causes the heart

chambers to enlarge

and eventually fail