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The Music of Machines. a machine means regular rhythm metronome (Beethoven) spinning wheel (Wagner - Flying Dutchman) sewing machine (Charpentier - Louise) trains (Honegger - Pacific 231) airplane (Antheil - Airplane Sonata) mechanical devices (Antheil - Ballet Mecanique)

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The Music of Machines

  • a machine means regular rhythm

    • metronome (Beethoven)

    • spinning wheel (Wagner - Flying Dutchman)

    • sewing machine (Charpentier - Louise)

    • trains (Honegger - Pacific 231)

    • airplane (Antheil - Airplane Sonata)

    • mechanical devices (Antheil - Ballet Mecanique)

    • telephone (Menotti - The Telephone)

    • foundry (Mossolov - Steel Foundry)


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Facination with the Machine

  • Arthur Honegger 1892 - 1955

  • Pacific 231

    • composed in 1923

    • a “symphonic movement”

    • description of a steam locomotive


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Facination with the Machine

  • Heitor Villa-Lobos 1887 - 1959

  • Bachianas Brasileiras

    • suites for various instrumental combinations

    • No. 2: The Little Train of the Caipira

    • inspired by a trip he took

    • “Caipira” means “yokel”


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Technology and the listener

  • MUSIQUE CONCRETE

    • “natural” sounds

    • editing

  • ELECTRONIC STUDIOS

    • Herbert Eimert - 1952

  • Edgard Varese 1883 - 1965

  • Poeme Electronic (1958)

    • Le Corbusier

    • Philips Radio Corporation - Brussels World’s Fair

    • sound - projected images

    • no synchronization


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TECHNOLOGY

  • Synthesizers

    • the impact of synthesizers

      • affordable

      • efficient

    • RCA Mark II (1955)

    • Robert Moog and Donald Buchla

  • Switched - on - Bach (1968)

    • Walter (later Wendy) Carlos

  • Live and Electronic Mixes

  • Live Electronic Music

  • Computer Music


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TECHNOLOGY

  • IRCAM

    • Institut de Recherche et de Coordination Acoustique / Musique (IRCAM)

    • founded 1976 - Paris

    • Pierre Boulez

    • funded by the French government

  • IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY IN THE 20th CENTURY

    • phonograph

      • preserve

      • influenced the complexity

      • brought music to everyone


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TECHNOLOGY

  • radio

    • 1920

    • ideal music library - recorded and live

  • electronic music has the effect of blurring the distinction between musical sound and noise

  • tape recorder

    • greatest impact on compositional technique

    • passive or active


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    Philip Glass b. 1937

    • Degrees from the University of Chicago, the Juilliard School, and studies with Boulanger

    • Withdrew the first 20 compositions after working with Ravi Shankar

    • His works since the mid 1960s are influenced by the rhythmic organization of Indian music

      • Einstein on the Beach - 1976

      • Satyagraha - 1980

      • Akhnaten - 1984

      • The Voyage - 1992

    • Koyaanisqatsi


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    QUESTIONS

    • Yehudi Menuhin plays the

    • violin

    • John Cage performed his famous piece 4’33” in the video on a street corner. What is the point of this work?

    • careful listening to the sounds around us

    • Pacific 231 is a musical description of

    • a steam locomotive

    • Villa-Lobos also composed a descriptive work about a train. It is called

    • The Little Train of the Caipira


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    QUESTIONS

    • Alban Berg and Anton Webern were disciples of

    • Schoenberg

    • The Hungarian composer who combined native folk music with European music was

    • Bartok

    • The first major figure in American Art Music was

    • Charles Ives

    • Who invented the prepared piano?

    • John Cage


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    RED-HOTQUESTIONS

    • Who is the composer of Poeme Electronique?

    • Edgard Varese

    • For what occasion was Poeme Electronique composed?

    • The 1958 Brussels World Fair

    • Musique Concrete means

    • naturally produced sounds altered electronically

    • The first electronic studio was developed by the German

    • Herbert Eimert


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    COOL QUESTIONS

    • The first synthesizer was the

    • RCA Mark II

    • IRCAM is located

    • in underground Paris

    • Pierre Boulez is the director of IRCAM and was conductor of

    • the New York Philharmonic Orchestra

    • The greatest technological impact on 20th century composition was the

    • tape recorder


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    QUESTIONS

    • International composer who admonished Americans to draw on their own background

    • Dvorak

    • First person to research the music of the Native Americans

    • Theodore Baker

    • Creator of the Wa-Wan press

    • Arthur Farwell

    • Father of Black American classical music

    • William Grant Still


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    QUESTIONS

    • Composer of thousands of works including classical and jazz

    • Duke Ellington

    • Composer of two ballets based on Western folklore

    • Aaron Copland

    • First American student of Boulanger

    • Aaron Copland

    • Composer of the “African-American Symphony”

    • William Grant Still



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    The Bridge Between

    • Building bridges

      • Copland

      • Gershwin

      • Ellington

      • Bernstein


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    George Gershwin 1898 - 1937

    • Gershwin composed four works that cross the cultural divide

      • Rhapsody in Blue - 1924

      • Piano Concerto in F - 1925

      • An American in Paris - 1928

      • Porgy and Bess - 1935


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    Porgy and Bess

    • Opera in the 20th century

    • Gershwin lived on a small island in South Carolina and worked with Charleston writer DuBose Heyward


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    Leonard Bernstein 1918 - 1990

    • Bernstein represented American Music in the last half of the 20th century

    • Bernstein was a pianist, composer, teacher, and conductor

    • Protégé of Serge Koussevitsky at Tanglewood

    • As a pianist, he played everything


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    Leonard Bernstein

    • As a conductor, he was permanent conductor of the New York Philharmonic

    • As a composer he composed ballets, musicals, symphonies, operas

    • West Side Story - 1957


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    Setting the Stage for the 21st Century

    Total Serialism, New Sounds, Freedom, Chance, Postmodernism, Fusion


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    After WW II

    • The Audience

      • Technology

      • The struggle between popularization and classical

    • The end of the war marked a turning point

      • A period of conflicting tendencies:

        • Extreme control

        • Complete freedom


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    Total Serialism

    • Composers felt Schoenberg, Berg, and Webern had not gone far enough

    • Serialism means the notes are arranged in a series

    • The first composition based on total serialism was Structures I by Pierre Boulez


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    Structures I

    • Boulez was trained in math and music

    • Structures I was written for two pianos

    • Boulez made series for four different musical elements

      • Pitch

      • Duration

      • Attack (the way a pianist strikes the note)

      • dynamics


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    Structures I

    • Demands skilled performers and a lot of effort by the listeners

    • sounds like a random, disjointed piano piece but is actually a carefully constructed work

    • You hear the shifting textures and contrasting panels of sound


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    Other Composers of this Style

    • Karlheinz Stockhausen 1928 -

    • Luciano Berio 1925 -

    • Milton Babbitt 1916 -


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    A Late Development

    • Electronic Music Technology

      • Development of the synthesizer in the 1950s

      • All aspects of music could be controlled

      • The performance no longer needed a human


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    New Sounds, Freedom, and Chance

    • Popular composers began to overwhelm the music of serious composers

    • The most interesting experiments were happening in serious music


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    New Sounds

    • Many experiments revolved around new technology provided by

      • Synthesizer

      • Tape recorder

      • Computer

      • New techniques on traditional instruments


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    New Sounds

    • Two composers working with sound textures

      • Gyorgy Ligeti 1923 -

      • Krzysztof Penderecki 1933 -

    • Ligeti worked with large blocks of sound

      • The blocks can expand or contract


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    Threnody for the Victims of Hiroshima

    • Penderecki’s most famous composition

    • 1960

    • For string orchestra


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    Freedom and Chance

    • Total serialism and block sounds require very careful control

    • Freedom and Chance are a move away from control

    • The idea was John Cage’s

    • Cage studied with Schoenberg who told him he had no ear for music!

    • Cage said “Everything we do is music”


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    John Cage 1912 - 1992

    • Prepared piano

    • The toss of dice

    • Works include

      • Imaginary Landscape No. 4 1951

        • 12 radios

      • 4’33”

        • Performer does nothing

    • “If my work is accepted, I must move on to the point where it isn’t”


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    Postmodernism

    • The meaning of art was no longer certain

      • Is paint dropped on the floor “art”?

      • Is subway graffiti “art”?

    • Concert organizations are presenting the music of the past

    • Are orchestras simply museums?

    • The economy forced cuts in support for the arts


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    Postmodernism

    • A deliberate return to the past

    • A return to tonality

      • Neo-tonality

      • Neo-Romanticism

    • Quoting earlier styles and cross-fertilization

    • The rapid spread of recorded music

      • Do all moments in history exist with equal weight?


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    Postmodernism

    • The dividing line between opera and musicals is narrowing

    • Performing groups deliberately mix genres

    • String quartets play Jimi Hendrix

    • Chamber groups use amplified instruments


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    Postmodern Music

    • It began by quoting earlier music

      • Nach Bach - George Rochberg

        • fragments of Bach’s harpsichord music

      • Renaissance Concerto - Lukas Foss, 1986

        • Based on the music of Orfeo’s lament from Monteverdo’s Orfeo


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    Renaissance Concerto

    • Recitative - after Monteverdi

      • Many repeated pitches

      • The opening phrase is a direct quote


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    Other Features of Postmodern Music

    • Return to tonality

      • David del Tredici 1937-

    • Multimedia Postmodern

      • Laurie Anderson 1947-1999

    • Incorporation of musical elements from other cultures

      • Alan Hovhaness 1911-


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    Other Features ofPostmodernism

    • Merging of popular and “Serious” music

      • Minimalism

        • Philip Glass 1937-

        • John Adams 1947-


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    Fusion

    • The most important aspect of Postmodern Music is the narrowing of gaps between all types of music

    • A mix of jazz and rock is called fusion

      • Miles Davis

      • Keith Jarrett

      • William Bolcom

      • Bobby McFerrin


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    Fusion

    • The theater

      • Les Miserables

      • Phantom of the Opera

        • Both works contain the style of the Broadway Musical and the continuous musical settings of the opera


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    Inclusion

    • Women and minorities are taking their place in American music making

      • Sound Patterns by Pauline Oliveros 1932-

      • Sometimes by Olly Wilson 1937-

      • Wings by Joan Tower 1938-

      • Symphony No. 1 by Ellen Taaffe Zwilich 1939-


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    The Performers

    • The traditional barriers between classical and popular music are disappearing

      • The Kronos Quartet