Chapter 1 Components of Your Computer. What is a Computer Types of Computers Components of a Computer Computer Software Communication Networks The Internet and the World Wide Web. What is a Computer?.
Components of Your Computer
A computer is a device that accepts input, manipulates it under a sequence of instructions
(a program) and produces an output. This process is called the “Information Processing Cycle.”
The output can be the result of a calculation or just an acknowledgement of the input.
…an abacus is a kind of computer…
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Mainframes typically cost hundreds of thousands of dollars and are manufactured by companies such as Hitachi, IBM, and Amdahl.
Forms of Micro-Computers:
This is the computer’s hardware…it is tangible.
Accept data for the computer to work with and
Send it on to the processing unit…
The Central Processing Unit, or CPU, is the brains
of the computer. It controls all activity and performs
operations on data based on its instruction set. The CPU is made up of four major units as shown below.
These devices, also known as secondary storage,
are where the PC stores data that must last from
session to session. Basically speaking this is the
permanent data storage.
Though they differ in their technologies and
methods of storage, the result is the same; the
PC can easily retrieve the stored data for use at a
These components are many times referred to as
Mass Storage devices.
Software is computer instructions (Programs) and
Anything that is electronically stored on a computer
storage device is considered software.
It is intangible and exists only electronically.
Systems software is the program that controls
the computer and manages its resources. Acts as an intermediary between user and the hardware.
Operating systems perform the basic tasks of
computing like managing the input and output of
data and interpreting the instructions of the
System Utility software performs more basic
functions such as file management or backup, but
they must work under an operating system.
Operating systems are written to run on specific processors (platforms).
Utility software is written to run under specific
Application software consists of programs that
help you work and play on the computer. This
category includes word processors, games,
spreadsheets, drawing and other “productivity”
This is the bulk of all software written.
Application software is written to run under specific
connected to each other by a network cable, usually
an “unshielded twisted pair” cable known as “CAT 5”.
Connecting more then two computers require the
use of a network hub as transmission link as shown.
the server to manage the network and control access
to resources. The computers can be connected
using various types of cable including CAT 5, coaxial
and fiber optical.
central line or backbone.
loop. This means that each node has two connections,
one in and another out. Using this type of topology
the data must travel through all the nodes.
The World Wide Web is a collection of computers
connected via the Internet that support the use of
documents written in HyperText Markup Language
The “web” uses the HyperText Transfer Protocol
(HTTP) as the standard for the formatting and
transmission of these documents.
Internet is a “network of networks.”