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Latin America and the Caribbean. Countries of Mexico and Central America. Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama. Countries of South America.

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Latin America and the Caribbean

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countries of mexico and central america
Countries of Mexico and Central America
  • Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama
countries of south america
Countries of South America
  • Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay
countries of the caribbean
Countries of the Caribbean
  • Cuba, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Puerto Rico (US)
physical features
Physical Features
  • Major Mountain ranges
    • Andes Mountains
    • Sierra Madre Mountains--Oriental and Occidental
  • Rainforests
  • Coastal Desert--Atacama Desert
  • Amazon River Basin
Tropical Grasslands--Pampas, Llanos
  • Archipelagoes groups of related islands
  • Reversed seasons south of the Equator
  • Volcanoes and Earthquakes
Vertical Zonation of Climates in Mexico
    • Tierra Templada-temperate
    • Tierra Fria-cold
    • Tierra Caliente-hot
economic characteristics
Economic Characteristics
  • diverse economies
  • subsistence farming
  • plantation agriculture
  • slash and burn agriculture
  • cash crops and food crops
  • haciendas
  • cattle ranches and gauchos
  • destruction of the rainforests
  • oil resources--Ecuador, Venezuela, Mexico
  • Heavy smog and pollution--Mexico City
disparity of income distribution
  • NAFTA member
  • diverse mineral resources
    • copper in Chile
    • iron ore in Venezuela and Brazil
cultural characteristics
Cultural Characteristics
  • Indian civilizations--Aztec, Inca
  • African traditions--slaves
  • influences of European colonization--Spanish
  • predominance of the Roman Catholic religion
  • rigid social structure—no movement
Mestizos-European and Native
  • location of settlements--coastal in South America
  • Megacities with large squatter settlements
  • rapid population growth
  • out-migration
cultural heritage
Cultural heritage
  • music--African influences, calypso, steel drum bands, reggae
  • traditional dances
  • Spanish and Portuguese languages
cultural landscape
Cultural landscape
  • pyramids and cathedrals
  • haciendas and ejidos (communal land)
  • ruins at Machu Picchu
  • ruins at Tikal
latin america


From Mexico to Chile and Argentina

mountain ranges

2nd highest range in the world.

Run from Chile to Panama

Sierra Madres

In Mexico

3 different areas




Mountain Ranges
ancient Mayan city
  • ceremonial and civic center
  • Tikal is the "New York City" of the Maya, its skyscraper-like pyramids soaring up out of the jungle canopy.
amazon river basin
Amazon River Basin
  • Over 1000 tributaries feed the Amazon River.
  • Drains an area almost the size of the USA.
  • Amazon 2nd largest river in the world.
  • Drains 60 times more water then the Nile.

In Argentina

Used for grazing and farming


In Venezuela

Used for grazing and farming

  • Rainforests cover much of Latin America.
  • Rain forests are near the equator.
  • Amazon rainforest covers almost 2 million acres.
  • Atacama Desert
    • Driest desert in the World.
    • Sheltered from the rainforest by the Andes
archipelagoes groups of islands
Archipelagoes(groups of islands)
  • Bahamas
    • Hundreds of islands off the tip of Florida and to the North of Cuba
  • Greater Antilles
    • Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola
Lesser Antilles
    • Smaller islands to the South of Puerto Rico
latin america test review
Latin America--Test Review
  • What is the main language of Latin America?
  • Spanish
  • What is the main religion of Latin America?
  • Roman Catholic
Name the major mountain ranges of Mexico?
  • Sierra Madre Oriental and Sierra Madre Occidental
  • What is the most important and populous region of Mexico?
  • Central Plateau
What do Tierra Fria, Tierra Templada, and Tierra Caliente have in common?
  • All are climate zones from the Latin American mountain regions
  • Ancient Mayan ruins can be found in which region of Mexico?
  • Yucatan Peninsula
Which native civilization was conquered by Cortez and the Spanish in Mexico?
  • the Aztecs
  • What three cultures make-up Mexico?
  • Ancient Indian, colonial Spanish and modern Mexican
What is an EJIDOS?
  • Farmland owned collectively by members of a rural community
  • What is a HACIENDA?
  • Large Spanish-owned estates of land, usually run as a farm or cattle ranch
Who provided the labor on the Haciendas?
  • Indians
  • What is a mestizo?
  • Person of mixed Spanish and native Indian ancestory
  • What economic alliance is Mexico a member of?
What is an isthmus?
  • A narrow strip of land with water on both sides
  • What is the main economic activity of Central America?
  • Agricultural
What does an unequal distribution of wealth mean?
  • Most money/resources controlled by a few
What do Cuba, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, and Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic) make up?
  • Greater Antilles
  • What group was originally brought to the Caribbean to work on the sugar plantations?
  • Africans
What is an archipelago?
  • Island group or island chain
  • What is subsistence farming?
  • Growing only enough for your use
  • What are the tropical grasslands of South America called?
  • Llanos and pampas
What is the predominant climate in Latin America?
  • Tropical climates
  • Does Latin America have volcanoes and earthquakes?
  • YES
  • What do Ecuador, Venezuela and Mexico have in common?
  • oil
What is the main problem in Mexico City?
  • Smog and pollution
  • What mineral resources does Chile have?
  • Copper
Describe Latin America’s social structure.
  • Rigid
  • What 3 things do most Latin American cities have in common?
  • Coastal, megacities, squatter settlements
What is Macchu Picchu?
  • Ancient Incan ruins
  • What is the name of the ancient Mayan ruins in Guatemala?
  • Tikal
Name the major mountain range of South America?
  • Andes
  • When it is summer in the US, what season is it in Argentina?
  • winter
What is the largest economic activity in Argentina’s patagonia region?
  • Cattle ranching
  • What are Argentina’s cattle ranchers called?
  • gauchos