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Equine Behavior. Environment Experiences Diet Exercise Stress. Genetics Gender Type Breed Family group. What Affects Behavior?. Smell Identify other horses Mating Locate water, feed Vomeronasal organ Pheromones Ears & Hearing Detect sounds Determine location of sound

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What affects behavior l.jpg

Environment

Experiences

Diet

Exercise

Stress

Genetics

Gender

Type

Breed

Family group

What Affects Behavior?


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  • Smell

    • Identify other horses

    • Mating

    • Locate water, feed

    • Vomeronasal organ

    • Pheromones

  • Ears & Hearing

    • Detect sounds

    • Determine location of sound

    • To provide sensory information

    • Hear in range 14 Hz to 25 kHz (humans 20 Hz to 20 kHz)

    • Auricle – 180o rotation

    • Ear position generally relates to visual attention


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  • Touch

    • Responsive to pain, pressure, cold and heat

    • Sensitive areas

      • Eyes, ears and nose

      • Withers, ribs, flanks and legs

    • Suffers fatigue


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VISION

  • Primary detector of danger

  • Acute ability to detect movement

  • Monocular & Binocular vision

    • Monocular field of vision: 215o for each eye

    • Binocular field of vision: 60o-70o

  • Often raise head to observe close objects

  • Lower head to observe faraway objects

Monocular field

Up to 215o

Binocular field

60-70o

Marginal zone

Monocular field


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Visual Signs

  • Ears

  • Tail

  • Mouth & lips

  • Eyes

  • Nostrils


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Harem groups – Domestic horses, Przewalski horse & some zebra

Territorial breeders-Donkeys & some zebras

Horse BehaviorSocial Organization


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Social Organization zebra

  • Harem

  • Family

  • Mares

  • Stallion

  • Bachelor Group


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Ten Natural Survival Traits zebra

  • Depends on flight as its primary means of survival

  • One of the most perceptive of all domestic animals

  • Very fast response time

  • Can be desensitized from frightening stimuli

  • Horses forgive, but do not forget


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Ten Natural Survival Traits zebra

  • Horses categorize

    • A) something not to fear, so ignore or explore

    • B) Something to fear, so flee

  • Horses are easily dominated

  • Horses exert dominance by controlling the movement of their peers. Horse accept dominance when:

    • We or another animal cause them to move when they prefer not to

    • We or another animal inhibit movement when they want to flee


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Ten Natural Survival Traits zebra

  • The body language of a horse is unique to the equine species

  • Horse is a precocial species (newborn foals are neurologically mature at birth)


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Types of Horse Behavior zebra

  • Ingestive behavior

  • Eliminative behavior

  • Epimeletic behavior -Care-giving & care-seeking behavior


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Types of Horse Behavior zebra

  • Sexual

    • Polygamous

    • One offspring

    • Seasonal Breeders

    • Fetal behavior

    • Parturient behavior


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Self-care behavior zebra

Homeostatic influences

Grooming

Rest

Awake 80%

Drowsiness 8%

Sleep 12%

Autogroom

Mutual Groom

Horse Behavior


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Types of Horse Behavior zebraInvestigative Behavior

  • Play behavior

  • Exploratory behavior


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Types of Horse Behavior zebra

  • Allelomimetic Behavior

    • Mimicry


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Types of Horse Behavior zebraAgonistic Behavior


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Types of Horse Behavior zebra

  • Dominance/Submission (Social Order)


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Horse Behavior zebra

  • Spacing

    • Individual distance

    • Group distance

    • Social distance

    • Flight distance

    • Home range

    • Territorial


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Activity zebra

  • Diurnal

  • Travel up to 16 km/d (10 mile/d)

  • Home range, can be up to 1000 ha.(2500 acres)

  • Range: 0.8-303 sq. km (0.5-188 sq. mile)



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Behavioral Considerations in Equine Handling zebra

  • HERD INSTINCT

  • HOMING INSTINCT

  • FLIGHT

  • DOMINANCE HEIREACHY

  • TERRITORIAL BEHAVIOR

  • SELF-DEFENSE

  • HABIT


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Good Stress – The stressful condition in which the horse can find a solution that will relieve the stress

Harmful Stress – A stressful condition in which there is no possible solution or escape.

Stress


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Responses To Harmful Stress can find a solution that will relieve the stress

  • Habituate

  • Develop abnormal behavior

  • Permanent fear memory


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Equine Stereotypes can find a solution that will relieve the stress

  • Oral

    • Cribbing

    • Tongue movements

    • Lip movements


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Equine Stereotypes can find a solution that will relieve the stress

  • Locomotion

    • Head movements (bobbing, tossing, shaking, swinging, nodding)

    • Throat rubbing

    • Pacing

    • Weaving

    • Fence or stall walking


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Equine Stereotypes can find a solution that will relieve the stress

  • Locomotion

    • Circling

    • Stomping

    • Kicking

    • Pawing

    • Digging

    • Tail rubbing


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Equine Stereotypes can find a solution that will relieve the stress

  • Self-Mutilation

    • Self-biting (flank, chest, shoulder)

    • Wall-kicking

    • Lunging into objects


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EQUINE VICES can find a solution that will relieve the stress

  • AGGRESSIVE VICES

    • Biting

    • Charging

    • Crowding

    • Rearing

    • Kicking

    • Striking

    • Fighting


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EQUINE VICES can find a solution that will relieve the stress

  • METABOLIC VICES

    • Coprophagy or dirt eating

    • Cribbing

    • Mane and tail chewing

    • Wood chewing