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NO - VE 2008, Venice, April 15-18, 2008. ASTROPARTICLES IN THE LHC ERA. Antonio Masiero Univ. of Padova and INFN, Padova. LHC and “LOW-ENERGY” NEW PHYSICS. LHC discovers NP : difficult, if not impossible, to “reconstruct” the fundamental theory lying behind those signals of NP;

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lhc and low energy new physics
LHC and “LOW-ENERGY” NEW PHYSICS
  • LHC discovers NP: difficult, if not impossible, to “reconstruct” the fundamental theory lying behind those signals of NP;
  • LHC does not see any signal of NP: still a NP related to the stabilization of the elw. scale may be present, but with particles whose masses are in the multi-TeV range.
i l c
TEVATRON

LHC

I L C

DM - FLAVOR

for DISCOVERY

and/or FUND. TH.

RECONSTRUCTION

A MAJOR LEAP AHEAD IS NEEDED

NEW

PHYSICS AT

THE ELW

SCALE

DARK MATTER

"LOW ENERGY"

PRECISION PHYSICS

mn…

LINKED TO COSMOLOGICAL EVOLUTION

FCNC, CP ≠, (g-2), ()0

LFV

Possible interplay with dynamical DE

LEPTOGENESIS

NEUTRINO PHYSICS

why to go beyond the sm
WHY TO GO BEYOND THE SM

“OBSERVATIONAL” REASONS

THEORETICAL REASONS

  • INTRINSIC INCONSISTENCY OF SM AS QFT
  • (spont. broken gauge theory
  • without anomalies)
  • NO ANSWER TO QUESTIONS THAT “WE” CONSIDER “FUNDAMENTAL” QUESTIONS TO BE ANSWERED BY “FUNDAMENTAL” THEORY
    • (hierarchy, unification, flavor)
  • HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS
  • (but AFB……)
  • FCNC, CP
  • NO (but evidence >3σ for NP in
  • b - s transitions,,,)
  • HIGH PRECISION LOW-EN.
  • NO (but (g-2) …)
  • NEUTRINO PHYSICS
  • YE m0, 0
  • COSMO - PARTICLE PHYSICS
  • YE (DM, ∆B cosm, INFLAT., DE)

Z bb

NO

NO

NO

NO

YES

YES

Strong CP violation?

YES

on the complementarity of dm and lfv searches to direct lhc searches for np
ON THE COMPLEMENTARITY OFDM and LFV SEARCHES to DIRECT LHC SEARCHES FOR NP
  • Twofold meaning of such complementarity:
  • synergy in “reconstructing” the “fundamental theory” staying behind the signatures of NP;

ii) coverage of complementary areas of the NP parameter space ( ex.: multi-TeV SUSY physics)

slide7
MICRO

MACRO

PARTICLE PHYSICS

COSMOLOGY

HOT BIG BANG STANDARD MODEL

GWS STANDARD MODEL

HAPPY MARRIAGE

Ex: NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

POINTS OF

FRICTION

BUT ALSO

  • COSMIC MATTER-ANTIMATTER ASYMMETRY
  • INFLATION
  • - DARK MATTER + DARK ENERGY

“OBSERVATIONAL” EVIDENCE FOR NEW PHYSICS BEYOND THE (PARTICLE PHYSICS) STANDARD MODEL

present observational evidence for new physics
Present “Observational” Evidence for New Physics
  • NEUTRINO MASSES
  • DARK MATTER
  • MATTER-ANTIMATTER ASYMMETRY
  • INFLATION
sm fails to give rise to a suitable cosmic matter antimatter asymmetry
SM FAILS TO GIVE RISE TO A SUITABLE COSMIC MATTER-ANTIMATTER ASYMMETRY
  • SM DOES NOT SATISFY AT LEAST TWO OF THE THREE SACHAROV’S NECESSARY CONDITIONS FOR A DYNAMICAL BARYOGENESIS:
  • NOT ENOUGH CP VIOLATION IN THE SM NEED FOR NEW SOURCES OF CPV IN ADDITION TO THE PHASE PRESENT IN THE CKM MIXING MATRIX
  • FOR MHIGGS > 80 GeV THE ELW. PHASE TRANSITION OF THE SM IS A SMOOTH CROSSOVER

NEED NEW PHYSICS BEYOND SM. IN PARTICULAR, FASCINATING POSSIBILITY: THE ENTIRE MATTER IN THE UNIVERSE ORIGINATES FROM THE SAME MECHANISM RESPONSIBLE FOR THE EXTREME SMALLNESS OF NEUTRINO MASSES

matter antimatter asymmetry neutrino masses connection baryogenesis through leptogenesis
MATTER-ANTIMATTER ASYMMETRY NEUTRINO MASSES CONNECTION: BARYOGENESIS THROUGH LEPTOGENESIS
  • Key-ingredient of the SEE-SAW mechanism for neutrino masses: large Majorana mass for the RIGHT-HANDED neutrino
  • In the early Universe the heavy RH neutrino decays with Lepton Number violatiion; if these decays are accompanied by a new source of CP violation in the leptonic sector, then

it is possible to create a lepton-antilepton asymmetry at the moment RH neutrinos decay. Since SM interactions preserve Baryon and Lepton numbers at all orders in perturbation theory, but violate them at the quantum level, such LEPTON ASYMMETRY can be converted by these purely quantum effects into a BARYON-ANTIBARYON ASYMMETRY ( Fukugita-Yanagida mechanism for leptogenesis )

slide11
SUSY SEESAW: Flavor universal SUSY breaking and yet large lepton flavor violation Borzumati, A. M. 1986 (after discussions with W. Marciano and A. Sanda)

~

Non-diagonality of the slepton mass matrix in the basis of diagonal lepton mass matrix depends on the unitary matrix U which diagonalizes (f+ f)

see Isidori’s talk at this meeting

e in susygut past and future
µ e+ in SUSYGUT: past and future

Calibbi, Faccia, A. M., Vempati

inflation
INFLATION
  • CAUSALITY

(isotropy of CMBR)

  • FLATNESS

( close to 1 today)

  • AGE OF THE UNIV.
  • PRIMORDIAL MONOPOLES

SEVERE COSMOGICAL PROBLEMS

COMMON SOLUTION FOR THESE PROBLEMS

VERY FAST (EXPONENTIAL) EXPANSION IN THE UNIV.

V()

VACUUM ENERGY

 dominated by vacuum en.

TRUE VACUUM

NO WAY TO GET AN “INFLATIONARY SCALAR POTENTIAL” IN THE STANDARD MODEL

no room in the particle physics standard model for inflation
NO ROOM IN THE PARTICLE PHYSICS STANDARD MODEL FOR INFLATION

V=2 2 + 4 no inflation

But for one solution requiring a non-trivial gymnastics

Need to extend the SM scalar potential

Ex: GUT’s, SUSY GUT’s,…

See Giudice’s talk at this meeting

ENERGY SCALE OF “INFLATIONARY PHYSICS”:

LIKELY TO BE » Mw

DIFFICULT BUT NOT IMPOSSIBLE TO OBTAINELECTROWEAK INFLATION IN SM EXTENSIONS

the energy scale from the observational new physics
The Energy Scale from the“Observational” New Physics

neutrino masses

dark matter

baryogenesis

inflation

NO NEED FOR THE NP SCALE TO BE CLOSE TO THE ELW. SCALE

The Energy Scale from the “Theoretical” New Physics

Stabilization of the electroweak symmetry breaking at MW calls for an ULTRAVIOLET COMPLETION of the SM already at the TeV scale+

CORRECT GRAND UNIFICATION “CALLS” FOR NEW PARTICLES AT THE ELW. SCALE

slide18
WMAP3 + small scale CMB exps (BOOMERang, ACBAR, CBI ans VSA)

+Large-Scale Structures (SDSS,2dFCRS)

+SuperNova ( HST/GOODS, SNLS)

CONSISTENT WITH BARYON DENSITY

DETERMINATION FROM BIG BANG NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

dm the most impressive evidence at the quantitative and qualitative levels of new physics beyond sm
DM: the most impressive evidence at the “quantitative” and “qualitative” levels of New Physics beyond SM
  • QUANTITATIVE: Taking into account the latest WMAP data which in combination with LSS data provide stringent bounds on DM and BEVIDENCE FOR NON-BARYONIC DM AT MORE THAN 10 STANDARD DEVIATIONS!! THE SM DOES NOT PROVIDE ANY CANDIDATE FOR SUCH NON-BARYONIC DM
  • QUALITATIVE: it is NOT enough to provide a mass to neutrinos to obtain a valid DM candidate; LSS formation requires DM to be COLD NEW PARTICLES NOT INCLUDED IN THE SPECTRUM OF THE FUNDAMENTAL BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE SM !
the rise and fall of neutrinos as dark matter
THE RISE AND FALL OF NEUTRINOS AS DARK MATTER
  • Massive neutrinos: only candidates in the SM to account for DM. From here the “prejudice” of neutrinos of a few eV to correctly account for DM
  • Neutrinos decouple at ~1 MeV ; being their mass<
  • The “weight” of neutrinos in the DM budget is severely limited by the observations disfavoring scenarios where first superlarge structures arise and then galaxies originate from their fragmentation
wimps weakly interacting massive particles
WIMPS (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles)

# exp(-m/T)

# does not change any more

#~#

m

Tdecoupl. typically ~ m /20

  depends on particle physics (annih.) and “cosmological” quantities (H, T0, …

10-3

 h2_

~

<(annih.) V  > TeV2

From T0 MPlanck

~ 2 / M2

h2 in the range 10-2 -10-1 to be cosmologically interesting (for DM)

m ~ 102 -103 GeV (weak interaction) h2 ~ 10-2 -10-1 !!!

THERMAL RELICS (WIMP in thermodyn.equilibrium with the plasma until Tdecoupl)

stable elw scale wimps from particle physics
STABLE ELW. SCALE WIMPs from PARTICLE PHYSICS

SUSY EXTRA DIM. LITTLE HIGGS.

1) ENLARGEMENT OF THE SM

(x, ) (x, ji) SM part + new part

Anticomm. New bosonic to cancel 2

Coord. Coord. at 1-Loop

2) SELECTION RULE

DISCRETE SYMM.

STABLE NEW PART.

R-PARITY LSP KK-PARITY LKP T-PARITY LTP

Neutralino spin 1/2 spin1 spin0

mLSP

~100 - 200 GeV *

mLKP

~600 - 800

GeV

3) FIND REGION (S) PARAM. SPACE WHERE THE “L” NEW PART. IS NEUTRAL + ΩL h2 OK

mLTP

~400 - 800

GeV

* But abandoning gaugino-masss unif. Possible to have mLSP down to 7 GeV

Bottino, Donato, Fornengo, Scopel

from the mssm to the c mssm constrained mssm
FROM THE MSSM TO THE CMSSM ( constrained MSSM)

PROLIFERATION OF PARAMETRS IN THE SOFT BREAKING SECTOR OF THE MSSM:

OVERALL NUMBER OF PARAM. IN THE MSSM IS

1 2 4

CMSSM

which susy
WHICH SUSY

HIDDEN

SECTOR SUSY

BREAKING AT

SCALE F

F = (105 - 106) GeV

F = MW MPl

GRAVITY

GAUGE INTERACTIONS

MESSENGERS

Mgravitino~ F/MPl ~

(102 -103) eV

Mgravitino ~ F/MPl ~

(102 -103) GeV

OBSERVABLE

SECTOR

SM + superpartners

MSSM : minimal content

of superfields

gravitino lsp
GRAVITINO LSP?
  • GAUGE MEDIATED SUSY BREAKING

(GMSB) : LSP likely to be the GRAVITINO ( it can be so light that it is more a warm DM than a cold DM candidate )

Although we cannot directly detect the

gravitino, there could be interesting signatures

from the next to the LSP ( NLSP) : for instance

the s-tau could decay into tau and gravitino,

Possibly with a very long life time, even of the order of

days or months

swimps super weakly interacting massive particles
DIFFERENT FROM THE THERMAL HISTORY OF WIMPSSWIMPS(Super Weakly Interacting Massive Particles)
  • - LSP Gravitino in SUSY
  • - First excitation of the graviton in UED …

They inherit the appropriate relic density through the decay of a more massive thermal species that has earlier decoupled from the thermal bath

dm de
DM DE

DO THEY “KNOW” EACH OTHER?

DIRECT INTERACTION  (quintessence) WITH DARK MATTER

  • DANGER:
  • Very LIGHT

m ~ H0-1 ~ 10-33 eV

Threat of violation of the equivalence principle, constancy of the fundamental “constants”, …CARROLL

INFLUENCE OF  ON THE NATURE AND THE ABUNDANCE OF CDM

SCALAR-TENSOR THEORIES OF GRAVITY, KINATION, RS II EXTRA DIM.

Modifications of the standard picture of

WIMPs FREEZE - OUT

CATENA, FORNENGO, A.M., PIETRONI, ROSATI, SCHELKE

CDM CANDIDATES

slide35
CONSTRAINTS ON THE ENHANCEMENT OF THE UNIV.EXPANSION RATE FROM THE LIMITS ON THE ANTIPROTON ABUNDANCE

SCFMP

searching for wimps
SEARCHING FORWIMPs

LHC, ILC may

PRODUCE WIMPS

WIMPS escape the detector MISSING ENERGY SIGNATURE

WIMPS HYPOTHESIS

DM made of particles with mass 10Gev - 1Tev

ELW scale

With WEAK INTERACT.

FROM “KNOWN” COSM. ABUNDANCE OF WIMPs PREDICTION FOR WIMP PRODUCTION AT COLLIDERS WITHOUT SPECYFING THE PART. PHYSICS MODEL OF WIMPs

BIRKEDAL, MATCHEV, PERELSTEIN , FENG,SU, TAKAYAMA

slide38
Model Independent Annual Modulation Result

DAMA/NaI (7 years) + DAMA/LIBRA (4 years) Total exposure: 300555 kgday = 0.82 tonyr

experimental single-hit residualsratevstime and energy

ROM2F/2008/07

Acos[w(t-t0)] ; continuous lines: t0 = 152.5 d, T = 1.00 y

2-4 keV

A=(0.0215±0.0026) cpd/kg/keV

2/dof = 51.9/66 8.3  C.L.

Absence of modulation? No

2/dof=117.7/67  P(A=0) = 1.310-4

2-5 keV

A=(0.0176±0.0020) cpd/kg/keV

2/dof = 39.6/66 8.8  C.L.

Absence of modulation? No

2/dof=116.1/67  P(A=0) = 1.910-4

2-6 keV

A=(0.0129±0.0016) cpd/kg/keV

2/dof = 54.3/66 8.2  C.L.

Absence of modulation? No

2/dof=116.4/67  P(A=0) = 1.810-4

The data favor the presence of a modulated behavior with proper features at 8.2s C.L.

slide39
Neutralino-nucleon scattering cross sections along the WMAP-allowed coannihilation strip for tanbeta=10 and coannihilation/funnel strip for tanbeta=50 using the hadronic parameters

ELLIS, OLIVE, SAVAGE

Ellis, Olive, Sandick

LHC Sensitivity

slide40
SPIN - INDEPENDENT NEUTRALINO - PROTON CROSS SECTION FOR ONE OF THE SUSY PARAM. FIXED AT 10 TEV

PROFUMO, A.M., ULLIO

lfv dm constraints in minimal supergravity
LFV - DM CONSTRAINTS IN MINIMAL SUPERGRAVITY

A.M., Profumo, Vempati, Yaguna

indirect searches of dm
INDIRECT SEARCHES OF DM
  • WIMPs collected inside celestial bodies ( Earth, Sun): their annihilations produce energetic neutrinos
  • WIMPs in the DM halo: WIMP annihilations can take place ( in particular, their rate can be enhanced with there exists a CLUMPY distribution of DM as computer simulations of the DM distribution in the galaxies seem to suggest. From the WIMP annihilation:

-- energetic neutrinos ( under-ice, under-water exps Amanda, Antares, Nemo, Antares, …)

--photons in tens of GeV range ( gamma astronomy on ground Magic, Hess, … or in space Glast…)

--antimatter: look for an excess of antimatter w.r.t. what is expected in cosmic rays ( space exps. Pamela, AMS, …)

slide46
Roszkowski, Ruiz,

Silk, Trotta

slide52
2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

Auger North

30 M€ (from 85)

CTA

> 2/3 from 100 + 50 M€

KM3NeT

250 M€

Megaton

400-800 M€

Grav Wave 3rd generation

300 M€

DM search 1 ton

60-100 M€

60-100 M€

50-200 M€

Double Beta 1 ton

50-200 M€

C. SPIERING, APPEC - ASPERA ROADMAP

slide53
2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

Auger North

30 M€ (from 85)

CTA

> 2/3 from 100 + 50 M€

KM3NeT

250 M€

Megaton

400-800 M€

Grav Wave 3rd generation

300 M€

DM search 1 ton

60-100 M€

60-100 M€

50-200 M€

Double Beta 1 ton

50-200 M€

add 300 M€ for running

experiments, upgrades,

new methods

30+100+250+200+

100+100+50+100 ~ 950 M€

i l c54
TEVATRON

LHC

I L C

DM - FLAVOR

for DISCOVERY

and/or FUND. TH.

RECONSTRUCTION

A MAJOR LEAP AHEAD IS NEEDED

NEW

PHYSICS AT

THE ELW

SCALE

DARK MATTER

"LOW ENERGY"

PRECISION PHYSICS

mn…

LINKED TO COSMOLOGICAL EVOLUTION

FCNC, CP ≠, (g-2), ()0

LFV

Possible interplay with dynamical DE

LEPTOGENESIS

NEUTRINO PHYSICS

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