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A New IDEA: An Education Policy Addressing Disparities - A Case Study of Local Educational Agencies Choices Regarding Early Intervening Services. Michelle Green Clark Maternal and Child Health (MCH) LeadershipTeam April 10, 2006. Objectives.

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michelle green clark maternal and child health mch leadershipteam april 10 2006

A New IDEA: An Education Policy Addressing Disparities - A Case Study of Local Educational Agencies Choices Regarding Early Intervening Services

Michelle Green Clark

Maternal and Child Health (MCH) LeadershipTeam

April 10, 2006

  • Clear understanding of disproportionality in special education
  • Understand new funding stream for Early Intervening Services (EIS) in the Individual Disability Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA)
  • Present possible option for EIS that will highlight new interventions in early childhood education
  • Understand major stakeholders’ interest in EIS funding
  • Highlight solution of one local school board
how is education policy mch policy
How is education policy MCH policy?
  • Association between education and health
  • Correlation of literacy and health
  • Educational attainment and health disparities
  • Disparity between general population and special education population
  • Inappropriate identification in special education
  • Restricted environments vs. general education

Significant disproportional over-representation based on race or ethnicity:

  • Identification of children with disabilities
  • Placement in a particular education setting
  • Disciplinary action, including suspension/expulsion
role of government
Role of Government
  • Federal level
  • State level
  • Local education authority (LEA) level
    • Parent role
individual disability education improvement act of 2004
Individual Disability Education Improvement Act of 2004
  • 1975 – Education for All Handicapped Children Act
  • 1997 – Individual Disabilities Education Act
  • 2001 – President’s Commission on Special Education
  • 2005 – on July 1, Individual Disability Education Improvement Act of 2004
idea early intervening services eis 613 f 1
IDEA Early Intervening Services (EIS) 613(f)(1)
  • Effective July 1, 2005
  • Final guidelines summer 2006
  • States offer own temporary guideline
  • Disproportionality exists -15% of Part B Federal Dollars
  • Students K-12 (emphasis K-3)
montgomery county
Montgomery County
  • Largest population and wealth in Maryland
  • 13% of 139,387 students receive special education
  • Operating Budget is $1.7B - $11,535 per student
  • High performing students
  • Both racially and ethnically diverse
source of all educational funds in mcps
Source of all educational funds in MCPS

Source of all special education funds in MCPS

MCPSb, 2005

special education and total mcps enrollment by racial ethnic group gender and special services 2005
Special Education and Total MCPS Enrollment by Racial/Ethnic Group, Gender, and Special Services, 2005

MCPSa, 2005

montgomery county14
Montgomery County

Disproportional in all 3 categories

special education enrollment by racial group african american 2005
Special Education Enrollment by Racial Group – African American, 2005


MCPSa, 2005

definition of eis
Definition of EIS
  • Professional development for teachers and other school staff to enable such personnel to deliver scientifically basedacademic instruction and behavioral interventions, including scientifically based literacy instruction, and, where appropriate, instruction on the use of adaptive and instructional software
  • Providing educational and behavioral evaluations, services, and supports, including scientifically based literacy instructions

IDEA, 2004, 613(f)(1)

identifying eis options
Identifying EIS Options
  • Interviewed local educational policy leaders at federal, state, and local level
  • Interviewed 3 separate researchers with grants directed by OSEP
  • Specifically looked at momentum in Maryland and where EIS services might be going locally
options for eis identified
Options for EIS Identified
  • Response to Intervention (RtI)
  • Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS)
  • Special Education software (4GL)
response to intervention rti
Response to Intervention (RtI)
  • High quality instruction matched to students needs.
  • Use data regarding student learning over time to make important educational decisions, including eligibility for special education services for students with specific learning disabilities (SLD).
problem solving process
Problem Solving Process
  • Define the Problem
  • (Screening and Diagnostic Assessments)

What is the problem and why is it happening?

  • Evaluate
  • (Progress Monitoring
  • Assessment)
  • Develop a Plan
  • (Goal Setting and Planning)

What are we going to do?

Did our plan work?

  • Implement Plan
  • (Treatment Integrity)

Carry out the intervention

Tilly, 2005

response to intervention a three tiered model
Response to Intervention:A Three-tiered Model



in general education


Klingner & Orosco, 2006

tier 1
Research-based instruction at the first tier is for all students and consists of explicit instruction in:

phonological awareness

the alphabetic principle (letter-sound correspondence)

fluency with connected texts

vocabulary development


Tier 1

1st Tier

Klingner & Orosco, 2006

tier 2
Tier 2

2nd Tier

  • The second tier is only for those students who do not reach expected benchmarks using a curriculum-based progress-monitoring assessment instrument such as the DIBELS (Dynamic Indicator of Basic Early Literacy Skills)
  • Students receive additional intensive support in small groups or individually
  • This support is provided within general education
  • Students may receive this additional support in their classrooms or in a different setting

Klingner & Orosco, 2006

tier 3
Tier 3



  • Students who continue to struggle are then provided with a third tier or level of assistance that is more intensive. It is this third tier many would consider to be special education.

Klingner & Orosco, 2006

evidence option 1
Evidence – Option #1
  • Reading proficiency increases
  • Special education referrals down specifically in learning disabilities
  • Helps with mislabeling
  • Test results improve
positive behavioral interventions and supports pbis
Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS)
  • History – 1997 IDEA
  • School wide behavioral support system
  • Involves entire school staff
  • Goal – positive school climate and environment



80% of Students


Tertiary Prevention:



Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior

Secondary Prevention:

Specialized Group

Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior

Primary Prevention:


Wide Systems for

All Students,

Staff, & Settings

Walker et al., 1996






Supporting Social Competence &

Academic Achievement

Four Elementsof PBIS





Staff Behavior


Student Behavior

Sugai & Horner, 2002

teaching matrix






Respect Others

Use inside voice

Eat your own food

Stay in your seat

Stay to right

Arrive on time to speaker

Respect Environment & Property

Recycle paper

Return trays

Keep feet on floor

Put trash in cans

Take litter with you

Respect Yourself

Do your best

Wash your hands

Be at stop on time

Use your words

Listen to speaker

Respect Learning

Have materials ready

Eat balanced diet

Go directly from bus to class

Go directly to class

Discuss topic in class w/ others

Teaching Matrix

Sugai, 2006

evidence option 2 pbis
Evidence: Option #2 (PBIS)
  • Office referrals decrease
  • Administration and teaching time increases – staff satisfaction
  • Suspension rates down
  • Keeps kids with behavioral problems (emotional disturbed) in a general education environment and learning
  • School wide test scores increase
education referral and tracking software
Education Referral and Tracking Software
  • Management Information System
  • Web based individualized learning plans
  • Improves documentation of services and interventions
  • Can link to Medicaid billing
evidence policy option 3 4gl
Evidence: Policy Option #3 (4GL)
  • Reduction in paperwork
  • Decrease costs of special education
  • Increases special education test scores
relevance to mch social work
Relevance to MCH Social Work
  • Every child is in the school system
  • IDEA funds school social workers
  • Shift to more preventative SW
  • Social Workers leading PBIS teams
  • P.L. 108-446, Individual Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) (2004).
  • Positive Behavior Supports and Interventions (PBIS). (2006). PBIS Maryland. Retrieved April 7, 2006 from http://www.pbismaryland.org/
  • President's Commission on Excellence in Special Education. (2001). A new era: Revitalizing special education for children and their families. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education.
  • Klinger, J. & Orosco, M. (2006). Cultural considerations with response to intervention (RTI) models and literacy instruction. Retrieved April 1, 2006 from http://www.nccrest.org/disproportionality/JK.MO.MB.ppt#256,1,Cultural Considerations with Response to Intervention (RTI) Models and Literacy Instruction
  • Montgomery County School System (MCPSa). (2005). Annual report on our call to action. Rockville, MD: Montgomery County School System.
  • Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPSb). (2006). Operating budget. Rockville, MD: Montgomery County Public Schools.
  • Sugai, G. (2006). Positive behavioral interventions and supports: Getting started. Retrieved April 7, 2006 from http://www.pbismaryland.org/Presentations/SpringForum2006/SpringForum2006Plenary.ppt
  • Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (2002). Introduction to the special series on positive behavior support in schools. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 10(3), 130-135.
  • Tilly, W. D. (2005). Diagnosing the learning enabled: Response to intervention provisions of IDEA '04 Retrieved March 26, 2006 from http://www.nasdse.org/documents/NASDSE_RTI_Case_pt1.pdf
  • Walker, H. M., Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Bullis, J. R., Sprague, D., Bricker, D., Kaufman, M. J. (1996). Integrated approaches to preventing antisocial behavior patterns among school-age children and youth. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, 194-209.