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Chapter 39
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  1. Chapter 39 The Solar System Presented by April Senger

  2. The Moon • July 20, 1969 Neil Armstrong was the first human to set foot on the moon • To date 12 people have stood on the moon • We have brought back 400 kg of materials to study composition & history • The diameter of the moon is about from San Francisco to New York • It was once molten • In its early history it was bombarded with meteoroids • Its crust is igneous and thicker than the Earth’s • It is too small to have an atm so it doesn’t have weather and meteoroids have a greater impact Presented by April Senger

  3. The Phases of the Moon • The sun shines on ½ of the surface • Phases are changes in the lighted portion we see from the Earth • New moon is when the dark side is facing us and we see darkness and occurs when the sun, moon and Earth are lined up • Over the next 7 days, we begin to see more the lighted portion of the moon called waxing crescent phase (waxing means increasing) • Next we see the waxing first quarter which is when the moon is at a 90 degree angle where we see half of the sunlit portion of the moon Presented by April Senger

  4. More Phases • Fourth, is the waxing gibbous (means more than half) stage • Fifth is the full moon where the moon, Earth and sun are lined up again • Sixth, the cycle reverses and is wanning (meaning shrinking) • Seventh, is the last quarter at 90 degree angles • Last, is the wanning crescent before the new moon begins again • This cycle takes 29.5 days Presented by April Senger

  5. Concept Check • Can a full moon be seen at noon? Can a new moon be seen at midnight? • See page 702 • You would be on the opposite side of the Earth during a full moon • You also would not see a new moon at midnight • Astronomers prefer to view the stars when the moon is absent from the night sky. When and how often is the night moonless? • There is a two week period right after and right before a new moon where there is very little moon light Presented by April Senger

  6. Eclipses • An event that occurs when one object passes into the shadow of another • Solar Eclipse Sun Moon Earth Presented by April Senger

  7. Lunar Eclipse Presented by April Senger

  8. What is Normal? Presented by April Senger

  9. The Sun • The sun is about 5800 Kelvin and 500 km thick • Every second, 4.5 million tons of mass in the sun is converted to radiant energy • The transparent solar surface is the photosphere • The surface has cool regions created by magnetic fields called sunspots • Sunspots are about 2 x the Earth’s size Presented by April Senger

  10. Layer by Layer • The chromosphere is a 10,000 km thick shell of plasma that can be seen during an eclipse as a pinkish glow • The outermost atm region is called the corona which is hotter than the sun’s surface • It merges in a hurricane of high-speed protons and electrons called a solar wind • The winds influence space weather, auroras, and impact electrons/communications on our satellites Presented by April Senger

  11. Solar Cycle • The sun rotates slowly • It isn’t a solid so the equator rotates in 25 days & the polar regions in 36 days • This distorts the magnetic fields creating the sun spots • The sunspots reach a maximum number every 11 years and then a minimum after another 11 years • The cycle therefore takes 22 years to complete Presented by April Senger

  12. The Solar System • Planets are any of the nine primary bodies orbiting the sun or a similar body orbiting another star • Solar systems are the sun and all the objects that orbit around it • Our planets include Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto • Copernicus was the first scientist to recognize that the planets orbited the sun. Kepler showed that the orbits of the planets were elliptical and not perfect circles • The solar system includes not only planets but meteors, comets and asteroids • Planets do not twinkle because they only can reflect light not produce it Presented by April Senger

  13. How Did It Form? • The origin is estimated at 5 bya • Stars start out as Nebulas (a cloud of gas & dust from interstellar matter) • Gravity pulls the Nebulas together and they begin to spin and collapse in • 30 million years after the collapse starts, the temps reach 15 million K and fusion will begin merging hydrogen to form helium • Planets are outer material that cools and spins into their orbits Presented by April Senger

  14. Mercury • Mercury is a lot smaller than the other members of this group of terrestrial planets • It is included because of its similarities with Venus, Earth, and Mars • It has few similarities with the other planets • 2nd smallest and closest to the sun • It revolves around the sun in 88 days and spins on its axis only 3 times for every 2 trips around the sun Presented by April Senger

  15. Mercury Facts • The Mariner 10 was our first attempt to collect information about Mercury • It is somewhat larger than the moon • Its surface looks like the moon’s but its craters aren’t as large due to its lack of gravity • Its size is small so its gravity is small resulting in little effect on other planets Presented by April Senger

  16. Facts Again… • The molecules in its atmosphere escape because the gravity is small-almost not atm • Daytime temps reach 430º C and at night -170º C because there are no molecules to hold the heat • We have mapped its surface with a radar and found volcanoes and other landforms Presented by April Senger

  17. Venus • The second planet -108 million km from the sun • Otherwise known as the Earth’s twin because of its similar mass, diameter & density • The Yellow Planet – 2nd from the sun • Called the Evening Star because it is the first to appear after the sun goes down Presented by April Senger

  18. High sulfuric acid clouds in the atm give it the yellow color The atm near the surface is almost all CO2 (96%) The atm is 91 times greater then the Earth’s 1 km below the surface It takes 243 days to make a full spin and 225 days to revolve around the sun A day on Venus is longer than an Earth year and it spins in the opposite direction The temp is about 460º C which is enough to melt lead…We only have highs around 58º C Small amounts of light and heat get through the sulfuric clouds and bounce back and forth between the ground and the CO2 which creates a greenhouse effect Venus Facts Presented by April Senger

  19. Mars • Mars is the 4th planet from the sun that orbits 228 million miles from the sun (the Earth is 150) • It is sometimes referred to as the red planet • The 4th red planet • It is a little more than ½ the Earth’s size, mass 1/9 as much and has layers as does our planet • It takes almost 2 years to orbit the sun Presented by April Senger

  20. Mars Facts • The Mariner 9 (orbited only) and Viking (orbit and landed 1971) probes collected information • The surface is barren, rocky, cratered, and wind swept • Long channels indicate water at one time • Polar caps of CO2 and H2O are evident and in the summer the CO2 vaporizes • 95% of the atm is CO2 and only .15% O Presented by April Senger

  21. Martian Moons • Mars has 2 moons named Phobos (the inner) and Deimos (the outer) • Both are potato shaped with cratered surfaces • From the surface of Mars, Phobos looks about ½ the size of our moon • Deimos is about half the size of Phobos and appears small from the surface of Mars Presented by April Senger

  22. More about Mars • The northern cap shrinks a lot and the southern changes slightly • The temps range from 30º to -130º C • Martian days are 24 hrs and 37.4 minutes • Marian winds are 10 x stronger than Earth • There is no ozone so it would be difficult for life to exist • The Earth is the only planet with water in all three states to our knowledge Presented by April Senger

  23. Jupiter • A planet of gaseous and liquid hydrogen and helium • Contains small amounts of ammonia, methane, and water vapor • Large planet with 2x the mass of all the other planets combined together Presented by April Senger

  24. Jupiter Facts • Its huge mass causes its own magnetic and gravitational fields 400 million times the Earth’s • The gravity pulls H & He so close to the surface they form a liquid ocean and at the center of the planet is rock • The core is a solid rock about 20 times more massive than the Earth • We have only seen the outer layers of the planet • The Voyagers and Galileo brought back pictures of red, white, tan and brown clouds Presented by April Senger

  25. Yes There’s More • The clouds are swirling thus the “Great Red Spot” sited in 1664 • Jupiter does have faint dust rings • It has 28 moons (4 large ones). Io is the closest to the surface with more volcanic activity than any other body in our solar system and Ganymede is the largest in the solar system (bigger than Mercury) • The moons have plate tectonics, volcanoes, and other features of planets Presented by April Senger

  26. Saturn • Second largest planet but also has the lowest density • Saturn has a similar structure to Jupiter. • It is twice the distance that Earth is to Jupiter • It has a 10 x greater diameter than Earth and is 100 x more massive • The ringed planet Presented by April Senger

  27. Saturn Facts • Saturn would float in water (density is .7) • It has a rocky core and oceans of H and He • Several large rings made of 100’s of smaller ones • Some think it was a moon that never formed • Rings are made of dust to chucks of rock several meters in diameter • 23 moons including Titan which is the largest (bigger then Mercury). Titan has an atm of N, Ar, methane and some organic like molecules Presented by April Senger

  28. Uranus • First found in 1781 and observed with probes to collect more information • It is the 7th planet from the sun • Its diameter is 4 x the Earth • It doesn’t have an internal heat source like Jupiter and Saturn • Gaseous planet-7th from the sun Presented by April Senger

  29. Contains 21 moons System of dark rings Atm is composed of H, He, and methane Methane is what gives the planet its blue color We suspect is has a liquid mantle and rocky core Unique due to its high degree of tilt on its axis. Earth is 23.5º and Uranus is 98º Cool Facts Presented by April Senger

  30. Neptune • This is the last of the gaseous planets • It has a similar structure to Uranus with a system of rings that vary in thickness • The 8th planet and was found using mathematics • Its diameter is 3.9 x the Earth’s, mass is 17 x greater and density is about a 1/3 • It has its own internal source of heat Presented by April Senger

  31. Neptune Facts • Minimum of 8 moons • Tritan is the most interesting moon • Thin atm of nitrogen gas • Large geysers on the surface • Most of the time it is the 8th planet but sometimes it passes Pluto’s orbit • Pluto was the 8th planet until 1999 when Neptune switch back again Presented by April Senger

  32. Pluto & Charon • Pluto is considered to be the ninth planet and has one large moon named Charon • 9th planet and very small • Every 20 years it switches with Neptune due to its orbit shape • It will be the 9th body from 1999 until 2019 Presented by April Senger

  33. Pluto Facts • No probes near Pluto • Neptune’s g was used to pull the Voyager away from Pluto and back to Triton • Hubble is used to image Pluto and math is used to determine its size, mass and density by making observations about its orbit Presented by April Senger

  34. Pluto Facts Continued • No atm and not gaseous…more similar to a terrestrial planet made of rock and ice • One moon named Charon • Charon is ½ the diameter of Pluto. Some feel it is a double planet (rotations and revolutions explained) Presented by April Senger

  35. Asteroid • A small rocky object that orbits the sun, usually in a band between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter • Huge chunks of rock traveling through space Presented by April Senger

  36. Most found between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter called the asteroid belt Some think that the belt might have spun itself into its own planet except for that Jupiter’s gravity tore it apart Asteroids can become moons if captured 1 km in diameter is the average Ceres is the largest at 750 km 1972 a 10 m 1000 ton asteroid came within 60 km of the Earth We have had many near hits Asteroid Facts Presented by April Senger

  37. Meteoroids, Meteors, and Meteorites • Asteroids smaller than a few hundred km are called meteoroids • Meteors are meteoroids that strike the Earth’s atm at about an altitude of 80 km • Meteors encounter a tremendous amount of friction with our atm and produce white lights refered to as falling stars • Most are only the size of a grain of sand but some do reach the surface called Meteorites Presented by April Senger

  38. Concept Check • How can a meteor cause an extinction on Earth? • It can create a dust cloud blocking out light • Acid Rain, tsunamis, wildfires, and delayed greenhouse effect are other issues Presented by April Senger

  39. Comets • They are a chunk of dust and ice that orbits the sun and becomes partly vaporized as it passes near the sun • They have a coma or bright shell that can expand 1 million km in diameter from the nucleus (a few km across) • The tail can extend 100 million km and is made of ions and dust (can be 2 tails) • Comets are plentiful • After about 100-1000 trips around the sun the material is vaporized and they are burned out with no tails Presented by April Senger