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Lecture 23

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  1. Lecture 23 Human Reproductive System

  2. Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System • Testes • Produce spermatozoa (gametes) • Produce androgens (hormones) • Series of ducts • Accessory glands (3) • Secretions added to sperm to form semen • Seminal vesicle, prostate gland, and bulbourethral gland Ureters Urinary bladder Seminal vesicle Ejaculatory duct Ductus deferens Prostate gland Bulbourethral gland Urethra Anus Penis Epididymis Glans Testis Prepuce Scrotum Fig. 28.11

  3. Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System • Supporting structures • Scrotum • 2 chambered sac that contains testes • Muscles help regulate temperature • Penis • Important sexual organ and part of the urinary system Ureter Penis Urinary bladder Ductus deferens Spermatic cord Epididymis Cremaster muscle Testis Dartos muscle Scrotum Fig. 28.12

  4. Descent of Testes • Descent • Pass from abdominal cavity through inguinal canal to scrotum

  5. Testes • Compartments divided by septa • Seminiferous tubules • Empty into efferent ductules • Efferent ductules empty into epididymis • Epididymis • Site of sperm cell maturation • 12-16 days Fig. 28.13

  6. Male Reproductive StructuresDucts Urinary bladder • Ductus deferens or vas deferens • Passes from epididymis into abdominal cavity • Ejaculatory duct • Joining of ductus deferens and seminal vesicle Ureter Seminal vesicle Ejaculatory duct Prostate gland Bulbourethral gland Ductus deferens Urethra Epididymis Testis Fig. 28.15

  7. Male Reproductive StructuresUrethra Urinary bladder • Urethra • Extends from urinary bladder to distal end of penis • Passageway for urine and male reproductive fluids Ureter Seminal vesicle Ejaculatory duct Prostate gland Bulbourethral gland Ductus deferens Urethra Epididymis Testis Fig. 28.15

  8. Male Reproductive StructuresPenis • Three columns of erectile tissue that engorge with blood • Corpora cavernosa (2) • Corpus spongiosum (1) • Glans penis • Prepuce or foreskin covers • Circumcision: Surgical removal Urinary bladder Ureter Corpus cavernosum Urethra Testis Penis Corpus spongiosum Glans Fig. 28.15 Clinical View, pg. 866

  9. Anatomy of Female Reproductive System Ureter • Female reproductive organs • Ovaries • Uterine tubes • Uterus • Vagina • External genital organs • Mammary glands Uterine tube Ovary Fimbriae of uterine tube Uterus Urinary bladder Cervix of uterus Rectum Urethra Vagina Clitoris Anus External urethral orifice Vaginal orifice Fig. 28.2

  10. Uterine or fallopian tubes or oviducts Open directly into peritoneal cavity to receive oocyte from ovary Transport oocyte or zygote from ovary to uterus Uterine Tubes Uterine tube Infundibulum Uterus Fimbriae Ovary Broad ligament Ureter Cervix Vagina (a) Posterior view Fig. 28.3

  11. Uterus & Vagina • Uterus • Parts: fundus, body, cervix • Composed of 3 layers • Perimetrium: Serous membrane • Myometrium: Smooth muscle • Endometrium: Mucous membrane Fig. 28.7

  12. Female External Genitalia • Vulva external female genitalia • Vestibule: Space • Labia minora: Form borders on sides • Clitoris: Erectile structure • Corpora cavernosa • Corpora spongiosa Fig. 28.9

  13. Review Question The structure of the female reproductive system that is homologous to the penis of the male system is the • Vagina • Labia minora • Uterus • Fallopian tubes • Clitoris

  14. Points to Remember • Male and female reproductive systems share similarities as evidence of homology • Important functions of: • Production of gametes and sex hormones • Production of sperm (temperature-sensitive) • Receiving sperm (semen is mixture of sperm and secretions of three accessory glands) • Providing site for development of fetus and birth • Breast milk secretions provide nourishment

  15. Questions?