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MINERALS PART II. Agenda. Minerals Review Formation Sources Deposition Locations Acquisition - Mining Processing Uses Field Trips. Mineral Review. Definition (4 Parts) Properties Physical Chemical Characteristic/Diagnostic Groups. Mineral Formation. Mineral Formation.

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Presentation Transcript
agenda
Agenda
  • Minerals
    • Review
    • Formation
    • Sources
    • Deposition
    • Locations
    • Acquisition - Mining
    • Processing
    • Uses
    • Field Trips
mineral review
Mineral Review
  • Definition (4 Parts)
  • Properties
    • Physical
    • Chemical
    • Characteristic/Diagnostic
  • Groups
mineral formation1
Mineral Formation
  • Mineral Paragenesis: Process of mineral formation and deposition.
    • Bowens Reaction Series
      • Continuous – (Feldspars)
      • Discontinuous
bowen s reaction series
Bowen’s Reaction Series
  • 2 Groups
    • Continuous Series
    • Discontinuous Series
  • New Minerals formed due to changes in temperature and pressure.
f04 26 pg62

f04_26_pg62

BOWENS REACTION SERIES

f04_26_pg62

t04 03 pg51
t04_03_pg51

t04_03_pg51

2 groups of silicate minerals
2 Groups of Silicate Minerals
  • Felsic Minerals
    • Content: Silicon, Oxygen, Aluminum, Potassium, Sodium
    • Lighter Color
    • Greater Density
    • Low Temperature Formation
  • Mafic Minerals
    • Content: Iron, Magnesium, Calcium (Feromag)
    • Darker in Color
    • Smaller Density
    • High Temperature Formation
sources of minerals1
Sources of Minerals
  • 3 Sources of Minerals
    • Juvenile Magma: Molten material below the surface (Basaltic Composition).
    • Remelted Crustal Material: (Granitic Composition)
    • Hydrothermal Fluids: Circulation of surface waters remove metals from host rocks and redeposit them.
mineral deposition1
Mineral Deposition
  • Deposition Process
    • Movement of Molten Material or hydrothermal fluids.
    • Concentration and Deposition of Mineral Deposits
movement of ore forming fluids
Movement of Ore-Forming Fluids
  • Causes of movement:
    • High vapor pressures of volatile-rich fluids.
    • Pressures from mountain-building forces.
    • Joints, faults, volcanic tubes channeling the fluids.
concentration of mineral deposits
Concentration of Mineral Deposits
  • Direct Deposit - Minerals deposited in cavities and cracks near the source of the molten material.
  • Rock Replacement - Some types of rocks are susceptible to replacement by minerals – limestone & dolomite.
  • Oxidation & Secondary Enrichment – Changes due to exposure to the atmosphere and weathering processes.
mineral deposit locations
Mineral Deposit Locations
  • http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1294/
mineral acquisition
Mineral Acquisition
  • Ore: Rock containing economically mineable minerals.
  • Mineral deposits are not uniformly distributed in the Earth’s crust nor did they all form at the same time.
  • In certain regions, conditions were favorable for the concentration of useful minerals.
  • There regions are termed mineralogenetic provinces and they contain broadly similar types of deposits, or deposits with different mineral assemblages that appear to be genetically related.
mineral acquisition1
Mineral Acquisition
  • Preliminary Activities
    • Discovery of ore body.
    • Size estimation of ore body.
    • Define accessibility of ore body.
    • Define methods for removing ore body.
    • Define financial reward of ore body.
      • Profit
      • Technical Requirements
      • Risks/Liabilities
mineral acquisition2
Mineral Acquisition
  • Ore Acquisition
    • Ore Type
      • Placer Deposit
      • Lode Deposit
    • Surface
      • Open-pit mining
      • Strip Mining
    • Subsurface
      • Tunnels/Shafts
      • Leaching
mineral processing1
Mineral Processing
  • Crush Material
  • Separate Ore from Waste (Tailings)
  • Concentrate Ores
    • Smelting (Melting)
    • Electrolytic Processing
    • Chemical Additions
    • Leaching
  • Ship processed minerals to manufacturers
mineral uses1
Mineral Uses
  • Precious Metals and stones
  • Electronics
  • Building Materials
  • Tools
  • Insulators
  • Conductors
mineral uses2
Mineral Uses
  • http//www.nwma.org/education/Uses%20for%20Minerals.htm
  • http//www.scienceviews.com/geology/minerals.html
  • http//www.mii.org/commonminerals.php
  • http//webmineral.com/Alphabetical_Listing.shtml
  • http//www.webmineral.com/
mineral field trips1
Information Sources

USGS

CORP ENGINEERS

Universities

Mining Companies

Parks & Recreation

Locations

Mines

Quarries

Road Cuts

Rivers/Beaches/Creeks

Mountains

Equipment/Materials

Hammer/Pick/Shovel/Chisel

Protective Goggles

Maps

Collecting Bags

Storage Containers

Permits/Schedules

Notebook

Hand Lens

Mineral ID Manuel

Camera

Compass

Mineral Field Trips
mineral field trips2
Mineral Field Trips
  • http://www.minerals.net/resource/finding.htm
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