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Korean Cluster Policies : Retrospect & Prospect for smart Specialization Strategies. Out reach Workshop on Smart Specialization Strategy Dongsoo Kim Korea Institute for Industrial Economics & Trade (KIET) 2013. 4. 4. Contents. Cluster Theory Cluster Policies in Korea

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korean cluster policies retrospect prospect for smart specialization strategies

Korean Cluster Policies : Retrospect & Prospect for smart Specialization Strategies

OutreachWorkshopon Smart Specialization Strategy

Dongsoo Kim

Korea Institute for Industrial Economics & Trade (KIET)

2013. 4. 4

contents
Contents
  • Cluster Theory
  • Cluster Policies in Korea
  • Retrospect of Regional Industrial Policies in Korea
  • Current Korean Regional Industrial Policies
  • Regional Industrial Policies and Smart Specialization Strategies

Source

  • Industrial Policy and Territorial Development : lessons from Korea, OECD 2011
  • White Paper on Regional Industry Development Policies, MKE 2013
  • Innovative Cluster Policies for Turkey, KDI KSP 2012
slide3

Cluster Theory

  • Scope of Physical Clusters

- Type I : Industrial Complexes

- Type II : R&D Zones, Science Park

- Type III : R&D Zones

- Type IV : Free Economic Zones

  • Components of Innovative Clusters

- Enterprises

- Universities

- Research institutes

- Efficient administration

Industrial Policy

(Ⅱ)

(Ⅰ)

(Ⅳ)

Science Technology Policy

Regional Policy

(Ⅲ)

slide4

Cluster Theory

1980s

1990s

2000s

Miller & Morris

Marshall

Porter

Theoretical Evolution & Needs

Industrial Parks:

Production Concentration

R&BD Clusters

Clusters:

Network

New Industries

Integrated Value Added

Practical R&D

Regional Industries

Accumulation of Human Cap

Specialization

Collaboration

Innovative Investment

Policy Tools

Innovative Infra

Networking

Governance

Industrial Infra

Industrial Complex

Skilled Labor

Tech Transfer

Venture Business Ecology

Global Networking

slide5

Cluster Theory

  • Scope of Research for Innovative Clusters

- Building an innovative environment from physical industrial complexes

- Establishing components of clusters

- Region-oriented from nation-oriented

  • Korean regional industrial development policies as the policies for innovative clusters
slide6

Retrospect of Economic Development in Korea

Phase I

1960-1979

Phase II

1980-1997

Phase III

1998-

Economic Dev

Distance

Network Industrial Parks with Infrastructure

Economic Density

Costal Cities with Industrial Parks

Division

Regional Competitiveness by Hub & Spoke

Selection & Concentration

full fledged Autonomy(‘94)

Rhoadmin(‘03-’08)

ParkAdmin(‘61-’79)

Time

Oil shock Financial Crisis(‘97)

Factor Intensive

National Dev

Infra (Gyeongbu HWY,’70)

Light to Heavy Industries

Technology

National Dev

Human Cap (KAIST,’78)

Heavy to Strategic Mfg

Innovation & Creativity

Regional Dev

New Growth Engine

Strategic, Leading, Green Industries

source white paper on regional industrial policies
Source: White Paper on Regional Industrial Policies

Retrospect of Regional Industrial Policies

(‘08) Establishment of Regional Industrial Dev

(‘03) Special Act for Balanced National Development

(‘09) Economic Region based Regional Industrial Dev Project

(‘03) Industrial Tech Establishment Project

(‘99) Regional Industrial Promotion Project

(‘94) Full fledged autonomy

(‘95) Industrial Tech Establishment Project

(‘84) Capital Region Reshuffling Plan

(‘67) Economic Dev Plan

(‘72) National Land Dev Plan

Distribution of small & medium industrial Complexes

(‘70) Free Export Zones

(‘74) Science Park

(‘62) Industrial Complexes

slide8

Retrospect of Regional Industrial Policies

  • Economic Development Plan : 1960s – 1970s

- Strong Leadership with Grand National Plan Rebuilding Industries

- Laborintensive industries

Light Industries (Textile, etc)

Heavy Industries (Shipbuilding, Steel, Chemicals etc)

Special Economic Zone Policies

Industrial Parks, Free Export Zones, Science Park

Infrastructure (Highways and Railroads)

Export oriented development

slide9

Retrospect of Regional Industrial Policies

  • Restructuring Industries for Advanced Country : 1980s – 1990s

- Light Industries to Heavy Industries

- Selection & Concentration

Automobile

IT industries

Semiconductor

Telecommunications, etc)

- Regional disparity between capital region and non-capital regions has been widening

Gini Index

slide10

Retrospect of Regional Industrial Policies

  • Four reasons behind the upsurge of the regional issue in the late 1990s

- Regional disparities and social conflicts

- Consolidation of democracy (Civilian government(’92), Autonomy(’94))

- Asian financial crisis (’97)

- The knowledge economy required the broadening of the technology-centered focus of industrial policy to incorporate innovation

slide11

Retrospect of Regional Industrial Policies

  • Full Fledged Local Autonomy since 1994

- National support for Regional Industries Promotion Projects from four local governments in 1997

- Building capacities with regional infrastructure such as Technoparks, etc

  • Establishment of Regional Development System in Rho Admin (‘03-’08)

- System for Regional Industrial Development basedon Regional Innovation System

- Focus more on R&D in tech development

  • Introduction of Economic Region in Lee Admin (‘09- )

- Scale Economy and Collaborative Network

- Focus more on collaborative networking with

slide13

Current Regional Industrial Policies

- Spatial scope of the regional industrial policy

slide14

Current Regional Industrial Policies

- regional industrial development projects

  • Leading Industry Promotion Projects in 7 Economic Regions

- The purpose of the Leading Industry Program in 5+2 Economic Regions is

to foster into world-class industries

to improve the industrial competitiveness of promising products

to expand the foundation for value creation

- The purpose of the Collaborative Program in 5+2 Economic Regions is

to encourage collaborative cooperation across Provinces

slide15

Current Regional Industrial Policies

- regional industrial development projects

  • Strategic Industry Promotion Projects in 16 Provinces

- Establishment Program for Local Industrial Foundations

Comprehensively support tech development and commercialization through joint-establishment and use of equipment and facilities by building local strategic industry complexes or innovation bases

- R&D for Local Industry, Innovative Tech Program

Develop core tech for strategic industries to promote balanced development

- Business Service, HR Dev Program for Local Industry

Provide technical instruction, advice, marketing and knowledge support services using local infrastructure

slide16

Current Regional Industrial Policies

- regional industrial development projects

- Regional Strategic Industry Planning Board Grogram

Establish industrial integration planning bodies to efficiently promote local strategic industry promotion projects

- Promotion Program for Local Innovation Base (Technopark)

Enhance the function of regional innovation bases centering on established Technoparks and provide comprehensive services for company support

slide17

Current Regional Industrial Policies

- governance

  • Ministry of Knowledge Economy(MKE)
  • KIAT : window agency of MKE
  • KIET : research institutes
  • Leading Industry Office (7)

anchor agency

  • Technoparks (18) & Specialized Centers : anchor agency
  • RRIs and RICs in Local Universities

Nation

Presidential Committee on Regional Dev (PCRD)

Ministry of Knowledge Economy (MKE)

Other Ministries

Ministry of EducSci & Tech (MEST)

KIET

Nat. Research Foundation (NRF)

KOR Institute for Advancement of Tech (KIAT)

Region

Economic Region Dev Committees (ERDCs)

Leading Industry Offices

HR Dev Centers

Technoparks,

Specialized Centers,

RRIs & RICs

Local Govt’s

Province

County

slide18

Current Regional Industrial Policies

- central governance

  • KIAT (Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology) : a window agency

- The Regional Industry Division

studies regional industrial development policies

manages and evaluates regional industrial promotion projects

disseminates successful projects

slide19

Current Regional Industrial Policies

- local governance

Regional Industry and Policy Planning

  • Technoparksin 16 Provinces : anchor agencies for Strategic Industry Promotion Projects

- nurture local industries by forming organic cooperative networks with the regions’ innovative institutions including industry, academy, researches and governments

- create strategies and plans that fit the regions’ circumstances and characteristics through discovering knowledge-based and small but technologically capable businesses.

Strengthen Regional & National Competitiveness

Technoparks as Basis for Nurturing Regional Industry

Business

Supports

Stronger Cooperation Among Related Parties

Fostering

Small-bul-Strong Businesses

Business

Creation

Tech

Innovation

slide20

Current Regional Industrial Policies

- local governance

Gyeonggi Daejin TP( ‘05)

(IT Telecommunications, Bio,

Contents,Logistics)

Acceleration & Plasma Association

Cheorwon Plasma Research Institute

Technoparks

Seoul TP(’05)

(Digital Contents,Bio,

IT Communications, Finance)

Gangneung Science Industry Foundation

(Wonju Medical Industry Techno Valley

(Chuncheon Bio Industry Foundation

Specialized Centers under TP

Gyeonggi TP(‘98)

(IT Communications, Bio,

Contents, Logistics)

  • 80 Specialized Centers : R&D and specialized business support

Independent Centers

Ceramic Material Cluster Center

Disaster Prevention Center

Songdo TP(‘98)

(Logistics, Auto,

Machineries, IT)

Misc Centers

Gangwon TP(‘03)

(Medical Device, Bio,

Materials, Tourism)

Bio Industry Institute

(Vehicle Embedded Tech Center

(Hybrid Component Institute

Marine Bio Institute

(Gumi Electronics & Info Tech Institute

(Pohang Institute of Metal Industry

IT Convergence Tech Center

Chungbuk TP(‘03)

(Semiconductor, Batteries,

IT, IT Convergence)

Semi-Conductor Center

ITConvergence Center

Bio Center

Gyeongbuk TP(‘98)

(Electronics, Materials,

Oriental Medicals, Tourism

Bio Info Center

Bio Center

Display Center

Media Center

Auto Parts R&D Center

Chungnam TP(‘98)

(IT, Auto Parts,

Culture, Agri-Bio)

Nano Application Center

Mobile Convergence Center

Bio Health Convergence Center

Oriental Medical Center

Gyeongbuk Univ Center

Daegu TP(‘98)

(Fiber,Bio,

Mechatronics, IT)

Mechatronics & Material Institute

Dye Tech Institute

Sewing Tech Institute

Textile Development Institute

Daejeon TP(‘08)

(IT, Bio,

Mechatronics, Parts)

Bio Center

Robot Center

Radio Engineering Center

Nano Material Center

Nano Fab Center at KAIST

Pohang TP(‘00)

(Steel, Nano Materials,

Robots)

Foundation of Automotive Parts Promotion

Jeonbuk TP(‘03)

(Auto Parts, Bio,

RFT, Culture)

Ulsan TP(‘04)

(Auto, Refined Chemicals,

Marine, Environments)

Auto Parts Center

Fine Chemical Center

Radiation Imaging Tech Center

(Institute for Bio Industry

(Institute for Automobile Tech

(Mechanical Carbon Institute

Testing Research Institute

Institute for Chemistry

Institute for Indus Tech

Gwangju TP(’98)

(Photonics, Auto Parts,

Electronics)

Auto Parts Center

Association for Photonics

Electrical Tech Institute

Photonics Tech Institute

Institute for Indus Tech

Busan TP(‘00)

(Machineries, Image IT,

Marine, MICE)

Machine Component Tech Center

Auto Component Tech Center

Marine Life Industry Promotion Center

MEMS/NANO Component Center

Heat Exchange Center

Logistics Managementt Tech Center

Smart Electronic Component Center

Jeonnam TP(‘03)

(Bio, Materials,

Logistics, Tourism)

New Material Industry Center

Polymer Material Center

Gyeongnam TP(‘04)

(Machineries, Robots,

Home Appliances, Bio)

Jeju TP(‘10)

(Bio, Digital Contents,

Tourism, Agri-Bio)

(Bio Foundation

Bio Food Tech Center

Bio Pharmaceutical Research Center

Nano Bio Research Center

Biological Control Center

Natural Resource Research Center

Institute for Leather & Footwear

Marine Equipment Association

(Marine Equipment Research Institute

Institute for Medium & Small Shipbuilding

Institute for Indus Tech

Home Appliance Center

KnowledgedMachineries Center

Refined Device Center

Aero Center

Bio Center

Mobile Telecommunication Center

Volcanic Seawater Center

Gimhae Medical Bio Center

Bio21 Center

Industrial Complex Corporation

slide21

Current Regional Industrial Policies

- local governance

  • Regional Innovation Centers in Specialized Local Industry Promotion Projects at universities

- established as a collaborative project between enterprises and universities since 1995

  • Regional Research Institutes in County govt’s for independent industrialization based on small R&D

monitor project with DB

plan & evaluate projects

Research Facilities

R&D Project

Human Resource

Business Incubating

support local govt’s in planning

network

(workshop etc)

R&D support

Tech Commercialization

Marketing

Network

Tech Transfer

slide22

Current Regional Industrial Policies

- summary

  • Zoning to ecology building

- industrial location policy to support programming

  • Selection & Concentration

- sectoral targeting (e.g. phonics in Gwangju, medical device in Gangwon, etc)

- smart specialization and tailor made support

  • Paradigm Shifts : Decentralization since 2003

- national clusters to local clusters

  • Infrastructure ▷▷R&D support▷▷Networking & Ecology
slide23

Current Regional Industrial Policies

- LeadingIndustries in Economic Regions

Jeju Economic Region

Honam Economic Region

Dongnam Economic Region

Daegyeong Economic Region

Gangwon Economic Region

Chungcheng Economic Region

Sudo Economic Region

International Free City

Green Area

Korean Silicon Valley

Logistic Hub

Frontier Well-Being

Knowledge Industry Area

Global Business Hub

Water

Leisure

  • Solar Energy

Green Tech Industry

  • Mobile

Green Energy

  • Medical Bio

Semiconductor

Medical Bio

Tourism

Financial Business

Advanced Manufacturing

  • Machineries

Materials

slide24

Bio

Medical Devices

New Materials

Tourism

Electronics

New Materials

Bio

Cultures

Seoul

Digitals

IT

Bio

Finance

Logistics

Automobile

Machineries

IT

IT

Bio

Software

Logistics

Machineries

Robot

Knowledge Home

Bio

Bio

Semi Conductor

Mobile Phone

2nd Battery

Electronics

Auto Parts

Culture

Bio

IT

Bio

Hitech Materials

Mechatronics

Automobiles

Maritime

Fine Chemicals

Environments

Mechatronics

Electronics

Textile

Bio

Auto Parts

Bio

New Energy

Tourism

Photovoltaics

Electronics

Auto Parts

Design

Logistics

Parts

Tourism

Film

Bio

Shipbuilding

Logistics

Tourism

Tourism

Health Bio

Environments

Digitals

Current Regional Industrial Policies

- Strategic Industries in Provinces

Gyeonggi

Incheon

Gangwon

Chungnam

Daejeon

Gyeongbuk

Chungbuk

Jeonbuk

Gyeongnam

Daegu

Gwangju

Ulsan

Jeonnam

Busan

Jeju

slide25

Prospect of Regional Industrial Policies

  • Industrial Ecology based on specialized regional industries

- entities own role : enterprises, universities, research institutes & governments

- active & productive networking based on open innovation

slide26

Prospect of Regional Industrial Policies

  • Sustainable Consistent Policies

- long-term planning under stable policies

- trial & error over time due to frequent changes in policy

  • Wariness of Complexity & Inefficiencies

- governance (& Quango) problem from multi layers of policies