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Java Sockets and Server Sockets. Low Level Network Programming Elliotte Rusty Harold elharo@metalab.unc.edu http://metalab.unc.edu/javafaq/slides/ . In this talk:. How data is transmitted across the Internet Sockets Server Sockets UDP. I assume you. Understand basic Java syntax and I/O

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java sockets and server sockets

Java Sockets and Server Sockets

Low Level Network Programming

Elliotte Rusty Harold

elharo@metalab.unc.edu

http://metalab.unc.edu/javafaq/slides/

in this talk
In this talk:
  • How data is transmitted across the Internet
  • Sockets
  • Server Sockets
  • UDP
i assume you
I assume you
  • Understand basic Java syntax and I/O
  • Have a user’s view of the Internet
  • No prior socket programming experience
  • Are familiar with the InetAddress class
applet network security restrictions
Applet Network Security Restrictions
  • Applets may:
    • send data to the code base
    • receive data from the code base
  • Applets may not:
    • send data to hosts other than the code base
    • receive data from hosts other than the code base
datagrams
Datagrams
  • Before data is sent across the Internet from one host to another using TCP/IP, it is split into packets of varying but finite size called datagrams.
  • Datagrams range in size from a few dozen bytes to about 60,000 bytes.
  • Packets larger than this, and often smaller than this, must be split into smaller pieces before they can be transmitted.
packets allow error correction
Packets Allow Error Correction
  • If one packet is lost, it can be retransmitted without requiring redelivery of all other packets.
  • If packets arrive out of order they can be reordered at the receiving end of the connection.
abstraction
Abstraction
  • Datagrams are mostly hidden from the Java programmer.
  • The host's native networking software transparently splits data into packets on the sending end of a connection, and then reassembles packets on the receiving end.
  • Instead, the Java programmer is presented with a higher level abstraction called a socket.
sockets
Sockets
  • A socket is a reliable connection for the transmission of data between two hosts.
  • Sockets isolate programmers from the details of packet encodings, lost and retransmitted packets, and packets that arrive out of order.
  • There are limits. Sockets are more likely to throw IOExceptions than files, for example.
socket operations
Socket Operations
  • There are four fundamental operations a socket performs. These are:

1. Connect to a remote machine

2. Send data

3. Receive data

4. Close the connection

  • A socket may not be connected to more than one host at a time.
  • A socket may not reconnect after it's closed.
the java net socket class
The java.net.Socket class
  • The java.net.Socket class allows you to create socket objects that perform all four fundamental socket operations.
  • You can connect to remote machines; you can send data; you can receive data; you can close the connection.
  • Each Socket object is associated with exactly one remote host. To connect to a different host, you must create a new Socket object.
constructing a socket
Constructing a Socket
  • Connection is accomplished through the constructors.
      • public Socket(String host, int port) throws UnknownHostException, IOException
      • public Socket(InetAddress address, int port) throws IOException
      • public Socket(String host, int port, InetAddress localAddr, int localPort) throws IOException
      • public Socket(InetAddress address, int port, InetAddress localAddr, int localPort) throws IOException
opening sockets
Opening Sockets
  • The Socket() constructors do not just create a Socket object. They also attempt to connect the underlying socket to the remote server.
  • All the constructors throw an IOException if the connection can't be made for any reason.
slide13
You must at least specify the remote host and port to connect to.
  • The host may be specified as either a string like "utopia.poly.edu" or as an InetAddress object.
  • The port should be an int between 1 and 65535.
      • Socket webMetalab = new Socket("metalab.unc.edu", 80);
slide14
You cannot just connect to any port on any host. The remote host must actually be listening for connections on that port.
  • You can use the constructors to determine which ports on a host are listening for connections.
slide15
public static void scan(InetAddress remote) {

String hostname = remote.getHostName();

for (int port = 0; port < 65536; port++) {

try {

Socket s = new Socket(remote, port);

System.out.println("A server is listening on port "

+ port + " of " + hostname);

s.close();

}

catch (IOException e) {

// The remote host is not listening on this port

}

}

}

picking an ip address
Picking an IP address
  • The last two constructors also specify the host and port you're connecting from.
  • On a system with multiple IP addresses, like many web servers, this allows you to pick your network interface and IP address.
choosing a local port
Choosing a Local Port
  • You can also specify a local port number,
  • Setting the port to 0 tells the system to randomly choose an available port.
  • If you need to know the port you're connecting from, you can always get it with getLocalPort().

Socket webMetalab = new Socket("metalab.unc.edu", 80, "calzone.oit.unc.edu", 0);

sending and receiving data
Sending and Receiving Data
  • Data is sent and received with output and input streams.
  • There are methods to get an input stream for a socket and an output stream for the socket.

public InputStream getInputStream() throws IOException

public OutputStream getOutputStream() throws IOException

  • There's also a method to close a socket.

public synchronized void close() throws IOException

reading input from a socket
Reading Input from a Socket
  • The getInputStream() method returns an InputStream which reads data from the socket.
  • You can use all the normal methods of the InputStream class to read this data.
  • Most of the time you'll chain the input stream to some other input stream or reader object to more easily handle the data.
for example
For example
  • The following code fragment connects to the daytime server on port 13 of metalab.unc.edu, and displays the data it sends.

try {

Socket s = new Socket("metalab.unc.edu", 13);

InputStream in = s.getInputStream();

InputStreamReader isr = new InputStreamReader(in);

BufferedReader br = new BufferedReader(isr);

String theTime = br.readLine();

System.out.println(theTime);

}

catch (IOException e) {

return (new Date()).toString();

}

writing output to a socket
Writing Output to a Socket
  • The getOutputStream() method returns an output stream which writes data to the socket.
  • Most of the time you'll chain the raw output stream to some other output stream or writer class to more easily handle the data.
discard
Discard

byte[] b = new byte[128];

try {

Socket s = new Socket("metalab.unc.edu", 9);

OutputStream theOutput = s.getOutputStream();

while (true) {

int n = theInput.available();

if (n > b.length) n = b.length;

int m = theInput.read(b, 0, n);

if (m == -1) break;

theOutput.write(b, 0, n);

}

s.close();

}

catch (IOException e) {}

reading and writing to a socket
Reading and Writing to a Socket
  • It's unusual to only read from a socket. It's even more unusual to only write to a socket.
  • Most protocols require the client to both read and write.
slide24
Some protocols require the reads and the writes to be interlaced. That is:
    • write
    • read
    • write
    • read
    • write
    • read
slide25
Other protocols, such as HTTP 1.0, have multiple writes, followed by multiple reads, like this:
    • write
    • write
    • write
    • read
    • read
    • read
    • read
slide26
Other protocols don't care and allow client requests and server responses to be freely intermixed.
  • Java places no restrictions on reading and writing to sockets.
  • One thread can read from a socket while another thread writes to the socket at the same time.
slide27
try {

URL u = new URL(args[i]);

if (u.getPort() != -1) port = u.getPort();

if (!(u.getProtocol().equalsIgnoreCase("http"))) {

System.err.println("I only understand http.");

}

Socket s = new Socket(u.getHost(), u.getPort());

OutputStream theOutput = s.getOutputStream();

PrintWriter pw = new PrintWriter(theOutput, false);

pw.print("GET " + u.getFile() + " HTTP/1.0\r\n");

pw.print("Accept: text/plain, text/html, text/*\r\n");

pw.print("\r\n");

pw.flush();

InputStream in = s.getInputStream();

InputStreamReader isr = new InputStreamReader(in);

BufferedReader br = new BufferedReader(isr);

String theLine;

while ((theLine = br.readLine()) != null) {

System.out.println(theLine);

}

}

catch (MalformedURLException e) {

System.err.println(args[i] + " is not a valid URL");

}

catch (IOException e) {

System.err.println(e);

}

socket options
Socket Options
  • Several methods set various socket options. Most of the time the defaults are fine.

public void setTcpNoDelay(boolean on) throws SocketException

public boolean getTcpNoDelay() throws SocketException

public void setSoLinger(boolean on, int val) throws SocketException

public int getSoLinger() throws SocketException

public synchronized void setSoTimeout(int timeout) throws SocketException

public synchronized int getSoTimeout() throws SocketException

slide29
These methods to return information about the socket:

public InetAddress getInetAddress()

public InetAddress getLocalAddress()

public int getPort()

public int getLocalPort()

  • Finally there's the usual toString() method:

public String toString()

servers
Servers
  • There are two ends to each connection: the client, that is the host that initiates the connection, and the server, that is the host that responds to the connection.
  • Clients and servers are connected by sockets.
  • A serve, rather than connecting to a remote host, a program waits for other hosts to connect to it.
server sockets
Server Sockets
  • A server socket binds to a particular port on the local machine.
  • Once it has successfully bound to a port, it listens for incoming connection attempts.
  • When a server detects a connection attempt, it accepts the connection. This creates a socket between the client and the server over which the client and the server communicate.
multiple clients
Multiple Clients
  • Multiple clients can connect to the same port on the server at the same time.
  • Incoming data is distinguished by the port to which it is addressed and the client host and port from which it came.
  • The server can tell for which service (like http or ftp) the data is intended by inspecting the port.
  • It can tell which open socket on that service the data is intended for by looking at the client address and port stored with the data.
threading
Threading
  • No more than one server socket can listen to a particular port at one time.
  • Since a server may need to handle many connections at once, server programs tend to be heavily multi-threaded.
  • Generally the server socket passes off the actual processing of connections to a separate thread.
queueing
Queueing
  • Incoming connections are stored in a queue until the server can accept them.
  • On most systems the default queue length is between 5 and 50.
  • Once the queue fills up further incoming connections are refused until space in the queue opens up.
the java net serversocket class
The java.net.ServerSocket Class
  • The java.net.ServerSocket class represents a server socket.
  • A ServerSocket object is constructed on a particular local port. Then it calls accept() to listen for incoming connections.
  • accept() blocks until a connection is detected. Then accept() returns a java.net.Socket object that performs the actual communication with the client.
constructors
Constructors
  • There are three constructors that let you specify the port to bind to, the queue length for incoming connections, and the IP address to bind to:

public ServerSocket(int port) throws IOException

public ServerSocket(int port, int backlog) throws IOException

public ServerSocket(int port, int backlog, InetAddress bindAddr) throws IOException

constructing server sockets
Constructing Server Sockets
  • Normally you only specify the port you want to listen on, like this:

try {

ServerSocket ss = new ServerSocket(80);

}

catch (IOException e) {

System.err.println(e);

}

slide38
When a ServerSocket object is created, it attempts to bind to the port on the local host given by the port argument.
  • If another server socket is already listening to the port, then a java.net.BindException, a subclass of IOException, is thrown.
  • No more than one process or thread can listen to a particular port at a time. This includes non-Java processes or threads.
  • For example, if there's already an HTTP server running on port 80, you won't be able to bind to port 80.
slide39
On Unix systems (but not Windows or the Mac) your program must be running as root to bind to a port between 1 and 1023.
  • 0 is a special port number. It tells Java to pick an available port.
  • The getLocalPort() method tells you what port the server socket is listening on. This is useful if the client and the server have already established a separate channel of communication over which the chosen port number can be communicated.
  • FTP
expanding the queue
Expanding the Queue
  • If you think you aren't going to be processing connections very quickly you may wish to expand the queue when you construct the server socket. For example,
      • try {
      • ServerSocket httpd = new ServerSocket(80, 50);
      • }
      • catch (IOException e) {
      • System.err.println(e);
      • }
choosing an ip address
Choosing an IP address
  • Many hosts have more than one IP address.
  • By default, a server socket binds to all available IP addresses on a given port.
  • You can modify that behavior with this constructor:
      • public ServerSocket(int port, int backlog, InetAddress bindAddr)throws IOException
example
Example
  • try {
  • InetAddress ia = InetAddress.getByName("199.1.32.90");
  • ServerSocket ss = new ServerSocket(80, 50, ia);
  • }
  • catch (IOException e) {
  • System.err.println(e);
  • }
slide43
On a server with multiple IP addresses, the getInetAddress() method tells you which one this server socket is listening to.

public InetAddress getInetAddress()

  • The getLocalPort() method tells you which port you're listening to.

public int getLocalPort()

slide44
The accept() and close() methods provide the basic functionality of a server socket.
      • public Socket accept() throws IOException
      • public void close() throws IOException
  • A server socket can’t be reopened after it’s closed
reading data with a serversocket
Reading Data with a ServerSocket

ServerSocket objects use their accept() method to connect to a client.

      • public Socket accept() throws IOException
  • There are no getInputStream() or getOutputStream() methods for ServerSocket.
  • accept() returns a Socket object, and its getInputStream() and getOutputStream() methods provide streams.
example1
Example
  • try {
  • ServerSocket ss = new ServerSocket(2345);
  • Socket s = ss.accept();
  • PrintWriter pw = new
  • PrintWriter(s.getOutputStream());
  • pw.println("Hello There!");
  • pw.println("Goodbye now.);
  • s.close();
  • }
  • catch (IOException e) {
  • System.err.println(e);
  • }
better example
Better Example
  • try {
  • ServerSocket ss = new ServerSocket(2345);
  • Socket s = ss.accept();
  • PrintWriter pw = new
  • PrintWriter(s.getOutputStream());
  • pw.print("Hello There!\r\n");
  • pw.print("Goodbye now.\r\n");
  • s.close();
  • }
  • catch (IOException e) {
  • System.err.println(e);
  • }
writing data to a client
Writing Data to a Client

try {

ServerSocket ss = new ServerSocket(port);

while (true) {

try {

Socket s = ss.accept();

PrintWriter pw = new PrintWriter(s.getOutputStream());

pw.print("Hello " + s.getInetAddress() + " on port "

+ s.getPort() + "\r\n");

pw.print("This is " + s.getLocalAddress() + " on port "

+ s.getLocalPort() + "\r\n");

pw.flush();

s.close();

}

catch (IOException e) {}

}

}

catch (IOException e) { System.err.println(e); }

interacting with a client
Interacting with a Client
  • More commonly, a server needs to both read a client request and write a response.
adding threading to a server
Adding Threading to a Server
  • It's better to make your server multi-threaded.
  • There should be a loop which continually accepts new connections.
  • Rather than handling the connection directly the socket should be passed to a Thread object that handles the connection.
adding a thread pool to a server
Adding a Thread Pool to a Server
  • Multi-threading is a good thing but it's still not a perfect solution.
  • Look at this accept loop:
      • while (true) {
      • try {
      • Socket s = ss.accept();
      • ThreadedEchoServer tes = new ThreadedEchoServer(s) tes.start();
      • }
      • catch (IOException e) {}
slide52
Every time you pass through this loop, a new thread gets created. Every time a connection is finished the thread is disposed of.
  • Spawning a new thread for each connection takes a non-trivial amount of time, especially on a heavily loaded server. It would be better not to spawn so many threads.
thread pools
Thread Pools
  • Create a pool of threads when the server launches, store incoming connections in a queue, and have the threads in the pool progressively remove connections from the queue and process them.
  • The main change you need to make to implement this is to call accept() in the run() method rather than in the main() method.
setting server socket options
Setting Server Socket Options
  • There are three methods to set and get various options. The defaults are generally fine.
      • public synchronized void setSoTimeout(int timeout) throws SocketException
      • public synchronized int getSoTimeout() throws IOException
      • public static synchronized void setSocketFactory(SocketImplFactory fac) throws IOException
utility methods
Utility Methods
  • Finally, there's the usual toString() method:
      • public String toString()
slide56
UDP
  • Unreliable Datagram Protocol
  • Packet Oriented, not stream oriented like TCP/IP
  • Much faster but no error correction
  • NFS, TFTP, and FSP use UDP/IP
  • Must fit data into packets of about 8K or less
the udp classes
The UDP Classes
  • Java's support for UDP is contained in two classes:

java.net.DatagramSocket

java.net.DatagramPacket

  • A datagram socket is used to send and receive datagram packets.
java net datagrampacket
java.net. DatagramPacket
  • a wrapper for an array of bytes from which data will be sent or into which data will be received.
  • also contains the address and port to which the packet will be sent.
java net datagramsocket
java.net.DatagramSocket
  • A DatagramSocket object is a local connection to a port that does the sending and receiving.
  • There is no distinction between a UDP socket and a UDP server socket.
  • Also unlike TCP sockets, a DatagramSocket can send to multiple, different addresses.
  • The address to which data goes is stored in the packet, not in the socket.
udp ports
UDP ports
  • Separate from TCP ports.
  • Each computer has 65,536 UDP ports as well as its 65,536 TCP ports.
  • A server socket can be bound to TCP port 20 at the same time as a datagram socket is bound to UDP port 20.
two datagrampacket constructors
Two DatagramPacket Constructors
  • public DatagramPacket(byte[] data, int length)
  • public DatagramPacket(byte[] data, int length, InetAddress iaddr, int iport)
  • First is for receiving, second is for sending
for example1
For example,
  • String s = "My first UDP Packet"
  • byte[] b = s.getBytes();
  • DatagramPacket dp = new DatagramPacket(b, b.length);
with a destination
With a destination:
  • try {
  • InetAddress metalab = new InetAddess("metalab.unc.edu");
  • int chargen = 19;
  • String s = "My second UDP Packet"
  • byte[] b = s.getBytes();
  • DatagramPacket dp = new DatagramPacket(b, b.length, metalab, chargen);
  • }
  • catch (UnknownHostException e) {
  • System.err.println(e);
  • }
datagrampackets are not immutable
DatagramPackets are not immutable.
      • public synchronized void setAddress(InetAddress iaddr)
      • public synchronized void setPort(int iport)
      • public synchronized void setData(byte ibuf[])
      • public synchronized void setLength(int ilength)
      • public synchronized InetAddress getAddress()
      • public synchronized int getPort()
      • public synchronized byte[] getData()
      • public synchronized int getLength()
  • These methods are primarily useful when you're receiving datagrams.
java net datagramsocket1
java.net.DatagramSocket
      • public DatagramSocket() throws SocketException
      • public DatagramSocket(int port) throws SocketException
      • public DatagramSocket(int port, InetAddress laddr) throws SocketException
  • The first is for client datagram sockets; that is sockets that send datagrams before receiving any.
  • The second two are for server datagram sockets since they specify the port and optionally the IP address of the socket
sending udp datagrams
Sending UDP Datagrams
  • To send data to a particular server
    • Convert the data into byte array.
    • Pass this byte array, the length of the data in the array (most of the time this will be the length of the array) and the InetAddress and port to which you wish to send it into the DatagramPacket() constructor.
    • Next create a DatagramSocket and pass the packet to its send() method
for example2
For example,
  • InetAddress metalab = new InetAddess("metalab.unc.edu");
  • int chargen = 19;
  • String s = "My second UDP Packet";
  • byte[] b = s.getBytes();
  • DatagramPacket dp = new DatagramPacket(b, b.length, ia, chargen);
  • DatagramSocket sender = new DatagramSocket();
  • sender.send(dp);
receiving udp datagrams
Receiving UDP Datagrams
  • Construct a DatagramSocket object on the port on which you want to listen.
  • Pass an empty DatagramPacket object to the DatagramSocket's receive() method.
      • public synchronized void receive(DatagramPacket dp) throws IOException
  • The calling thread blocks until a datagram is received.
slide69
dp is filled with the data from that datagram.
  • Use getPort() and and getAddress() to tell where the packet came from, getData() to retrieve the data, and getLength() to see how many bytes were in the data.
  • If the received packet was too long for the buffer, it's truncated to the length of the buffer.
for example3
For example,
  • try {
  • byte buffer = new byte[65536];
  • DatagramPacket incoming = new DatagramPacket(buffer, buffer.length);
  • DatagramSocket ds = new DatagramSocket(2134);
  • ds.receive(incoming);
  • byte[] data = incoming.getData();
  • String s = new String(data, 0, data.getLength());
  • System.out.println("Port " + incoming.getPort() + " on " + incoming.getAddress() + " sent this message:");
  • System.out.println(s);
  • }
  • catch (IOException e) {
  • System.err.println(e);
  • }
to learn more
To Learn More
  • Java Network Programming
    • O’Reilly & Associates, 1997
    • ISBN 1-56592-227-1
  • Java I/O
    • O’Reilly & Associates, 1999
    • ISBN 1-56592-485-1