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DEVELOPING AN EXPERT SYSTEM FOR GP IMPLEMENTATION. RUBY PINEDA-HENSON Department of Industrial Engineering Holy Angel University-Angeles City, Philippines hensonrp@datelnet.net ALVIN B. CULABA Department of Mechanical Engieering

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developing an expert system for gp implementation

DEVELOPING AN EXPERT SYSTEM FOR GP IMPLEMENTATION

RUBY PINEDA-HENSON

Department of Industrial Engineering

Holy Angel University-Angeles City, Philippines

hensonrp@datelnet.net

ALVIN B. CULABA

Department of Mechanical Engieering

De La Salle University-Manila, Philippines coeabc@mail.dlsu.edu.ph

outline of presentation
OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION
  • INTRODUCTION
  • RATIONALE FOR GP MODEL
  • EXPERT SYSTEMS METHODOLOGY
  • GP MODEL DEVELOPMENT
  • APPLICATION TO GP ANALYSIS OF SEMICONDUCTOR ASSEMBLY/PACKAGING
  • CONCLUSION/ RECOMMENDATION
slide3

GREEN PRODUCTIVITY PARADIGM

FRAMEWORK FOR CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT

PRODUCTIVITY

IMPROVEMENT

FOUNDATION FOR

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE

rationale for gp model
RATIONALE FOR GP MODEL
  • LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT - THE TECHNICAL FRAMEWORK
  • ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS- MULTICRITERIA DECISION MAKING(MCDM) MODEL AND TOOL
life cycle assessment
LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT
  • Streamlined LCA
  • Process-Based
  • Phased Approach
  • Inventory Analysis
  • Impact Assessment
  • Improvement Assessment
slide6

INVENTORY ANALYSIS

IMPACT ANALYSIS

IMPROVEMENT

Analysis

EMISSIONS TO AIR

1

Raw Materials

INPUTS

UNIT 

PROCESSES

EMISSIONS TO WATER

OUTPUTS 

IMPACTS 

IMPROVEMENT TECHNIQUES 

GREEN PRODUCTIVITY INDICATORS

2

IMPACT 1

Energy

EMISSIONS TO LAND

OPTION 1

3

IMPACT 2

Ancillary Materials

OTHER

RELEASES

OPTION 2

n

IMPACT 3

GREEN PRODUCTIVITY PERFORMANCE

PRODUCTS/ COPRODUCTS

OPTION 3

IMPACT 4

OPTION 4

IMPACT 5

OPTION j

IMPACT i

analytic hierarchy process
ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS
  • Pairwise Comparison
  • Mechanism For Consistency Check
  • A Panel Of Experts May Be Utilized
  • Geometric Means Of Comparison Ratings
expert systems technology
EXPERT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY
  • The potential of expert system technology is explored to develop a software that emulates how human experts diagnose GP performance of manufacturing processes.
slide9
Expert systems (ES) are computer programs that use expert knowledge and heuristics or rules of thumb to solve problems in a specific domain.
slide10
Complex decision analysis may involve an intricate combination of facts and heuristic knowledge which is organized into three distinct components:
  • Knowledge Base
  • Working Memory
  • Inference Engine
gp diagnostic software
GP DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE
  • Front-end database system (Visual FoxPro)
  • Windows shell program/interface
  • CLIPS (CLanguage Integrated Production System) expert system
  • The shell program embeds the ES. The Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) feature of Windows operating environment is used to transmit data to and from the two program ends.
gp model development
GP MODEL DEVELOPMENT
  • Sub-Models
  • Inventory Analysis
  • Impact Analysis
  • Improvement Analysis
  • Green Productivity Assessment
slide13

Knowledge Base

Inventory

Analysis

-------------------------

Input Data

Output Data

Environmental

Impact

Analysis

-------------------------

Classification

Valuation

Productivity

Improvement

Analysis

-------------------------

Classification Valuation

Green Productivity (GP) Assessment

-------------------------

GP Ratios

GP Indices

Figure 2. Green Productivity ES Model Structure

Multicriteria Decision Analysis (Analytic Hierarchy Process)

Input - Output Analysis

diagnostic model features
DIAGNOSTIC MODEL FEATURES
  • The inventory module prompts the user for inventory data on the manufacturing process.
  • The diagnostic module, through an embedded expert system program, performs impact classification on the inventory data.
example
In impact classification, pseudo-rules which are asserted as facts in the knowledge base links an input or output indicator substance found in the inventory to an impact category or classification. For example: IF [process input deionized water] and [deionized water >0] THEN [environmental impact water resource depletion] IF [process output mold runners] and [mold runners >0] THEN [environmental impact terrestrial ecotoxicity]EXAMPLE
slide17
Reads environmental impact and improvement priority weights from AHP calculations as well as green productivity performance ratios and indices.
  • Using an interface program between the database and the expert system, knowledge processing is performed on the passed parameters
slide18
The output consists of diagnostic advice on the result of inventory analysis, impact assessment, improvement assessment and green productivity assessment.
slide20

PROCESS INVENTORY ANALYSIS

IMPACT ANALYSIS

IMPROVEMENT

ANALYSIS

INPUTS

UNIT 

PROCESSES

OUTPUTS 

IMPACTS 

IMPROVEMENT TECHNIQUES 

PERFORMANCE

INDICATORS

WATER RESOURCE DEPLETION

Conceptual Framework for Green Productivity Analysis Applied to Semiconductor Assembly/Packaging

MATERIAL -BASED

ENERGY -BASED

ENERGY

RESOURCE

DEPLETION

GREEN PRODUCTIVITY PERFORMANCE

PROCESS -BASED

HUMAN TOXICITY:

Air emission

EMISSIONS TO AIR

PRODUCT -BASED

1

Raw Materials

HUMAN TOXICITY: Land emission

EMISSIONS TO WATER

2

MANAGEMENT -BASED

Energy

EMISSIONS TO LAND

HUMAN TOXICITY:

Water emission

3

Ancillary Materials

OTHER

RELEASES

ECOTOXICITY:

-Aquatic

n

PRODUCTS/ COPRODUCTS

ECOTOXICITY

- Terrestrial

slide21

Wafer

DI Water

FIRST LEVEL ASSEMBLY

DIE PREPARATION

LEGEND

Input/ Product

Waste/ emission

Reuse/ Recycle

Leadframe

Die

Waste Water

DIE ATTACH

Ancillary

Processes

Semiconductor Assembly/ Packaging Process Flowchart

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DEIONIZED WATER PRODUCTION

Used Solvent

FLUX CLEAN

Waste Water

Reuse

DI Water

MOLD/ POST MOLD

SOLDER PLATE / POST SOLDER CLEAN

FINAL TEST, MARK,

PACK

Semiconductor product

processes
PROCESSES
  • DIE PREPARATION
  • FIRST LEVEL ASSEMBLY
  • DIE ATTACH
  • FLUX CLEANING
  • MOLDING/POSTMOLD CURE
  • SOLDER/POST SOLDER CLEAN
  • TESTING
inventory data
INVENTORY DATA
  • SCENARIO 1 : BASE PERIOD
  • SCENARIO 2 : PLC MODIFICATION IN THE MOLDING PROCESS
seven impact classification
SEVEN IMPACT CLASSIFICATION
  • WATER RESOURCE DEPLETION -WRD
  • ENERGY RESOURCE DEPLETION-ERD
  • HUMAN TOXICITY ON AIR - HTA
  • HUMAN TOXICITY ON WATER - HTW
  • HUMAN TOXICITY ON LAND - HTL
  • AQUATIC ECOTOXICITY - ETA
  • TERRESTRIAL ECOTOXICITY - ETT
improvement techniques
IMPROVEMENT TECHNIQUES
  • MATERIAL-BASED (MBT)
  • ENERGY-BASED (EBT)
  • PROCESS OR
  • EQUIPMENT-BASED (PET)
  • PRODUCT-BASED (PBT)
  • MANAGEMENT-BASED (MGMT)
slide27

Level 1

Goal : Green Productivity

GREEN PRODUCTIVITY OF SEMICONDUCTOR ASSEMBLY / PACKAGING

Decision Hierarchy Structure for Green Productivity Analysis of Semiconductor Assembly/Packaging

Level 2

Factors:

Impact

Water

ResourceDepletion

Energy

ResourceDepletion

Human Toxicity

Air

Human Toxicity

Land

Human

Toxicity

Water

Ecotoxicity

Aquatic

Ecotoxicity

Terrestrial

Level 3

Alternative /Schemes:

Improvement Techniques

Material

Based

Energy

Based

Process Based

Product Based

Management Based

slide28
Aj =  Wi Kij i = 1, 2, …n impact factors

j = 1, 2, …m options

where Wi = the relative weight of impact factor i with respect to the over-all goal

Kij = relative weight of option j with respect to impact i

Aj = priority weight of option j.

green productivity indicators
GREEN PRODUCTIVITY INDICATORS
  • BASED ON MATERIAL/ENERGY UTILIZATION:
  • Water Utilization Ratio (MUR) =
  • kg product /kg water input
slide31
BASED ON ENERGY UTILIZATION:
  • Energy Utilization Ratio (EUR) =
  • kg product/kWh energy input
specific waste or emission ratios
SPECIFIC WASTE OR EMISSION RATIOS
  • BASED ON WASTE MINIMIZATION:
  • Waste Ratio or Emission Ratio (WR/ER) =
  • kg waste or emission/kg total material input
green productivity index
GREEN PRODUCTIVITY INDEX
  • GP INDEX OF “1” IS ASSIGNED TO THE BASE PERIOD AND GP INDEX FOR TEST SCENARIO IS DETERMINED
for test scenario
FOR TEST SCENARIO
  • FOR MATERIAL/ENERGY PRODUCTIVITY:
  • IF GP INDEX > 1 , GP IMPROVEMENT
  • IF GP INDEX <1, GP DECLINE
  • FOR WASTE OR EMISSION INDICES:
  • IF GP INDEX > 1 , GP DECLINE
  • IF GP INDEX < 1 , GP IMPROVEMENT
conclusion recommendation
CONCLUSION/RECOMMENDATION
  • The assessment methodology and computerized diagnostic prototype may be utilized as an internal management or self-assessment tool by companies in their continuous GP improvement strategies.
  • The application of expert systems technology is particularly appropriate to provide flexibility in testing assumptions and in preserving valuable human expertise on green productivity implementation in the manufacturing industry.
slide37
Enhancements may be made in future versions with more powerful analysis engine, sufficient database and comprehensive scope of GP analysis to include all life cycle stages.
acknowledgement
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
  • Asian Productivity Organization (APO) for the materials on Green Productivity
  • Semiconductor and Electronics Industries of the Philippines (SEIPI) and the Association of Electronics and Semiconductors for Safety and Environment Protection (AESSEP) for their favorable endorsement of the study to some member-semiconductor companies which provided the necessary data and information for this research.