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4/14 PowerPoint Presentation

4/14

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4/14

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  1. 4/14 • Phonotactics => Restrictions on the kinds of sounds and sound sequences in different parts of a word • Universals and Implications => Common versus uncommon speech sounds

  2. Syllable Structure • Mandarin syllables: (C)V(C) • => No consonant clusters • => Final consonant limited to nasals • (C) V [pɑ] ‘eight’ • (C) V /ŋ/ [pɑŋ] ‘help’ • (C) V /n/ [pæn] ‘class’

  3. Tagalog • CV [pa] ‘yet’ • (C)VC [it.log] ‘egg’ • Limited consonant clusters: • CCV • [tɾabaho] ‘work’ • [klase] ‘class’ • [kwaɾto] ‘room’

  4. English • V ‘a’ • VC ‘at’ • VCC ‘ask’ • VCCC ‘asked’ • => [æskt] • CV ‘no’ • CCV ‘flew’ • => [flu]

  5. CVC ‘not’ • CCVC ‘flute’ • => [flut] • CCVCC ‘flutes’ • CCVCCC ‘crafts’ • => [kɹæfts]

  6. CCCV ‘spree’ • => [spɹi] • CCCVC ‘spleen’ • CCCVCCC ‘strength’ • => [stɹɛŋkθ] • CCCVCCC ‘strengths’ • => [stɹɛŋks]

  7. 1. prill 2. skrick 3. blaft 4. rmut 5. thole 6. lsig 7. tosp 8. mgla 9. dnom 10. flitch Which are impossible English words?

  8. 1. prill 2. skrick 3. blaft 4. rmut 5. thole 6. lsig 7. tosp 8. mgla 9. dnom 10. flitch Which are impossible English words?

  9. Three consonant onset • First consonant = /s/ • Second consonant = /p, t, k/ • Third consonant = liquid or glide • Two consonant onset • Stop/fricative + Liquid/glide • /s/ + stop

  10. Borrowed Words • [ŋ] and [ʒ] do not occur word-initially in native English vocabulary. • But they do appear in borrowed words. • => ‘Nguyen’, ‘Jacques’

  11. Accent • When the words of one language are pronounced with rules and phonotactics of another language • Borrowing • Words borrowed from a foreign language are (typically) altered to match the native language’s phonotactics

  12. Borrowing • Sound substitution: substitution of an similar sound for a foreign sound that is not in the native phonemic inventory • Ger. Bach [bax] Eng. [bak] • Eng. this [ðɪs], thing [θɪŋ] Fr. [zis], [siŋ] • Arabic Al Qaeda [al qaɪda] Eng. [æl khaɪdǝ]

  13. Borrowing • Deletion: elimination of a sound • Greek  Eng... • Ptolemy, mnemonic (but, see amnesia) • Insertion: addition of a sound • Slavic  Eng. • Gdansk [gǝdænsk], Tbilisi [thǝbɪlɪsi] • Eng.  Japanese • beer[biːɾɯ], Christmas [kɯɾisɯmasɯ]

  14. Common Vowel Systems i u e o a Japanese, Hawaiian, Swahili, Spanish, Basque => Most languages have between 3 and 9 distinctive vowels.

  15. i u i e o a a Gudanji (Australia) Navajo

  16. Vowel System Universals • Most common – /a, i, u/ • Front vowels tend to be unrounded. • /i, e, ɛ, æ/ • Low vowels tend to be unrounded. • /æ, a, ɑ/ • Nonlow back vowels tend to be rounded. • /ɔ, o, u/

  17. Implicational Universals • If a language has contrastive nasal vowels, then it has contrasitive oral vowels. • French • /lã/ ‘slow’ • /la/ ‘weary’

  18. If a language has contrasting long vowels, then it has contrasting short vowels. • Japanese • /kiːta/ ‘heard’ • /kita/ ‘came’

  19. Consonant Systems • All languages have stops. • Most common - /p, t, k/ • Most common fricative - /s/ • Almost every language has at least one nasal phoneme. • Most common - /n/

  20. Implicational Universals • If a language has voiced obstruents (stops, affricates, fricatives), then it has voiceless ones. • Mandarin – no voiced obstruents • 1. [koʊ] 狗 ‘dog’ • 2. [khoʊ] 口 ‘opening’ • 3. [tɑʊ] 到 ‘arrive’ • 4. [thaʊ] 套 ‘set’