Psychology 3260: Personality & Social Development. Don Hartmann Spring 2006. Lecture 13: Emotions (Milestones). WEB Discussion Assignments & Due Dates. WEB Assignment # Group I II III IV CSI 02/03 (02/03) Growing Pain 02/06 (02/06) Psyched 02/07 (02/07)
Psychology 3260: Personality & Social Development Don Hartmann Spring 2006 Lecture 13: Emotions (Milestones)
WEB Discussion Assignments & Due Dates WEB Assignment # Group I II III IV CSI 02/03 (02/03) Growing Pain 02/06 (02/06) Psyched 02/07 (02/07) Agrrrression 02/08 (02/07) Authoritarians02/09 (02/08) Divas 02/10 Peer Pressure 02/13 Morally Distinguished 02/14 Raging Hormones 02/15 Bono 02/16 Girlie 02/19 Note: Each discussion topic closes at 5:00 p.m. two days prior to the stated due data.
Panel Discussion Schedule Wednesday… Feb. 15th Feb. 22nd Identity (Murquia et al.) Feb. 29th Mar. 08th:Gender (Marcus et al.) Mar. 15th Mar. 29th: Bullying (Borski et al.) Apr. 05nd: Family topic (Kyle et al.) Apr. 12th Apr. 19th Get you time period now, they are going like hot cakes!
Handout* WEB Date Date 11. Sup. Lect. #3: Method III ----- 01/11 12. HO: Autobio. Term Paper ----- 01/11 13. Lecture #4a: Method III ----- 01/12 14. HO: Completed Class Locator 01/13 ----- 15. Sup. Lect: Term Paper ----- 01/13 16. Code of Academic Conduct ----- 01/18 17. Study Guide #2: Chpt. 2 ----- 01/18 18. Lect. #7: Skinner ----- 01/18 19. Lect. #8: Bandura ----- 01/19 20. Study Guide #3 ----- 01/24 21. Lect. #9: Piaget ----- 01/25 22. Lect. 10: Peers I ----- 01/27 23. Study Guide #4 ----- 01/30 24. Study Guide #5 ----- 02/03 25. Lect. #12:Peers II ----- 02/03 ----- *Handout date refers to the date the handout was distributed in class. WEB date indicates the date the handout should have been included on the class WEB site. A dashed line indicates that the handout either was not distributed in class or was not placed on the WEB. Handout Summary
Friendships: Introduction • Definition: Reciprocal relationship with positive affect • Distinct from popularity • Importance • Source of social support • Conflict resolution skills • Preparation for adulthood • Can have bad consequences as well: Quality of friendships • Developmental Changes: Increasingly intimate and fewer in number with age
Friendships: Introduction • Definition: Reciprocal relationship with positive affect • Distinct from popularity • Importance • Source of social support • Conflict resolution skills • Preparation for adulthood • Can have bad consequences as well: Quality of friendships
George & Hartmann (1) • Relationship between friendship and popularity (George & Hartmann). 5th- & 6th-grade children administered • a rating scale sociometric‑‑and children were divided, by classrooms, into the bottom .25 (unpopular), middle .50 (average), and top .25 (popular) • Completed a questionnaire asking them to list up to 15 people who they considered to be their good friends
Results of George & Hartmann (2) • Children reported a mean ≈ 12 good friends • 80% of friends within a year of age • Few children had reciprocated cross‑sex friends • 70% in same school % Reciprocation Popularity Group
Results of George & Hartmann (3) Who is chosen as friends? • 12% unpopular; 47% average; 41% popular • But remember than only 25% of the children are classified as popular
Hartmann, Abbott, Pelzel, George, & Ward-Anderson Friendship Stability: Length of Time X Verified Status X Friendship Status % Friends Lost Weeks
Hartmann et al. Why Do Children Loose Friends? • Lack of recent Contact (33%) • Change in Interests (23%) • Negative Personality (21%) • Replaced by Other (21%) • Conflict (13%) • Third Party (10%) • Violation of Trust (10%)
Pelzel, Barrett, & Hartmann Feelings about their most significant friendship loss • What emotions did the loss precipitate? Anger, sadness, & confusion • How strong were the emotions? 2/3 stated experiencing strong negative feeling • How long did the feelings last? More than a month!
Summary of Peer Lab Friendship findings • Children describe having a substantial number of friendships • A substantial minority of which are not in their classroom • almost all of which are same gender • many of which are not reciprocated • Popular children are over-represented on lists of good friends • Friendships are dynamic—many are changing • How dynamic varies depending on how we assess • Friendship loss • Occurs for a variety of reason • And most individuals experience some pain with their most significant friendship loss
Introduction to Emotions • Overlap with text: pp. 100-120 • Lecture: • Introduction • Issues • Early Difficulties • Definition: the 5 aspects • Socioemotional Milestones In Infancy • Theoretical Explanations • Practical Considerations
Emotions: Supplementary References Saarni, C., Mumme, D.L., & Campos, J.J. (1998). Emotional development: Action, communication, and understanding. In W. Damon (Series Ed.) & N. Eisenberg (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3: Social, emotional, and personality development (5th ed., pp. 237-309). New York: Wiley. Denham, S. A. (1998). Emotional development in young children. New York: Guilford Press.
Theories of Emotions • Have captivated scientists at least since Darwin, and his “Discrete Emotions Theory”: Most basic emotions that we have are products of our evolutionary history that have adaptive value. Each discrete emotion is accompanied by a particular set of facial and bodily reactions and is apparent early in life. • Functional Approach: Goal oriented (functional) diffuse feeling of positivity/negativity that as a result of learning take more specific forms. • Because they both are current, both must have some utility.
Introduction • Critical part of Social Development • Issues in the Study of Emotions • Change in number and in expression: primary & secondary emotions
Early Development of Emotions • Infants go though various transformation of the basic or primary emotions —anger, sadness, joy, surprise and fear—that appear soon after birth. The transformations are from diffuse to specific, and increasing become associated with particular experiences and people. Implicated in the transformation are • Cognitive changes (e.g., development of causal attributions) • Learning (e.g., what works to alleviate this discomfort?)
Development of Self-Conscious Emotions • These more complex emotions—embarrassment, shame, guilt, envy, and pride—develop in the second year • Prsumably require self-recognition (e.g., passing the “rouge test”) as well as understanding of rules/standards
Development of Emotional Regulation • Developing self-soothing • Complyingwith Emotional Display Rules
Other Developmental Issues • How are emotional feelings transmitted? • How do we learn to identify & interpret emotions? • How does emotional development interacts with other development?
Problems with Studying Emotion • Some problems with the study of emotions—technical and definitional • remedied by technological developments • and reconceptualization of emotions and their role
Definitions • The varied aspects of emotions: • what elicits them • what receives them (receptors) • the physiological states that are induced • emotional expressions (that which is observable) • the experience of emotion‑‑sometime referred to as affect • Our focus: • emotions as affective reactions to various external conditions and • as promoting contact with caregivers • the knowledge function of emotions
Emotional Milestones (1) • Social Smiling: 4‑6 weeks of age • Stranger Anxiety or wariness: 6‑15 months • Separation Anxiety oranger: 6‑8 months
Emotional Milestones (2) • Social Attachments: 7‑10 months • Fear of Heights: 8 months
Why be Concerned with Emotional Milestones ? • They may tell us something about the health of the organism • From a theoretical perspective: • To test the theory • To aid us in understand- ing the phenomena • Aid us in controlling the phenomena
Mechanisms of Social Smiling—according to Learning Theory • Mechanisms: • Smiling on the part of caregivers is associated (via classical conditioning) with a variety of goodies, so caregiver smiling is a general conditioned reinforcer—like money! • Infant attempts to reinstate smiling. How? By smiling! • Following its occurrence in this manner, smiling is operantly reinforced
Problems with Learning Theory Notions of Social Smiling • Problems: • How are initial smiles produced? • What about the infant’s poor ability to differentiate emotional expressions?
Stranger Anxiety—according to the Ethologists • Children are "prewired" to fear a variety of objects settings, etc. because fearful‑avoidant responses have been adaptive to the species survival • Evidence: children fear strangers more in strange situations and in the absence of their parents (e.g., Sroufe) • Once the infant makes approach response to caregiver in presence of feared object, behavior is reinforced by caregiver in the form of affectional and soothing responses • Combating fear of strangers(see Box 4.2, p. 128) • Keep familiar folks near at hand and interact with them pleasantly • Make the setting familiar • Don't be obtrusive • Try looking less strange to the child
Summary of Emotional Milestone Lecture • Introduction • Issues • Early Difficulties • Socioemotional Milestones In Infancy • Theoretical Explanations & Practical Considerations • Next Lecture: Emotion and Schooling • Go in Peace