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Language use and identification. Centralization of vowels in Martha’s Vineyard. Language use and identification. Centralization of vowels in Martha’s Vineyard [  ]  [  ] and [  ]  [  ] while, pie, night out, house, trout. Language use and identification.

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language use and identification
Language use and identification
  • Centralization of vowels in Martha’s Vineyard
language use and identification2
Language use and identification
  • Centralization of vowels in Martha’s Vineyard []  [] and []  []
    • while, pie, night
    • out, house, trout
language use and identification3
Language use and identification
  • Centralization of vowels in Martha’s Vineyard []  [] and []  []
register variation
Register variation
  • Complexity of the speaker’s competence
    • T’as pas vu le flic ?
    • N’avez-vous vu le policier ?
  • Lexical choices (policier / flic)
  • Syntactic choices
    • subject pronoun / verb inversion
    • omission of ne
  • Phonological choices: Tu as vs. T’as
  • Social deixis: tu vs. vous
register variation7
Register variation
  • Complexity of the speaker’s competence
    • You seen the cop?
    • Have you seen the policeman?
  • Lexical choices (policeman / cop)
  • Syntactic choices
    • omission of perfect aux have
  • Phonological choices
    • you : [j] vs [ju:]
register variation8
Register variation
  • Complexity of the speaker’s competence
    • Have you seen the policeman?
    • Might you perhaps have seen the policeman
  • Addition of modal elements might, perhaps
register variation9
Register variation
  • Complexity of the speaker’s competence
    • She don’t talk to them boys no more.
    • She doesn’t talk to those boys any more.
  • Morphological choices
    • don’t vs doesn’t (as 3rd pers sg auxiliary)
    • them vs those (as plural demonstrative)
  • Syntactic choices
    • double negation
diachronic variation english
Diachronic variation: English

Fæder ure þu þe eart on heofonum;

Si þin nama gehalgod

to becume þin rice

gewurþe ðin willa

on eorðan swa swa on heofonum.

urne gedæghwamlican hlaf syle us todæg

and forgyf us ure gyltas

swa swa we forgyfað urum gyltendum

and ne gelæd þu us on costnunge

ac alys us of yfele soþlice

slide11
Fæder ure þu þe eart on heofonum;

Father our thou that art in heavens

Si þin nama gehalgod

be thy name hallowed

to becume þin rice

come thy kingdom

gewurþe ðin willa

be-done thy will

on eorðan swa swa on heofonum.

on earth as in heavens

urne gedæghwamlican hlaf syle us todæg

our daily bread give us today

and forgyf us ure gyltas

and forgive us our sins

swa swa we forgyfað urum gyltendum

as we forgive those-who-have-sinned-against-us

and ne gelæd þu us on costnunge

and not lead thou us into temptation

ac alys us of yfele soþlice

but deliver us from evil. truly

slide12
This version of the Lord's Prayer is from Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 140 [WSCp], a translation of the Gospels written in Bath in the first half of the 11th century; edited by Liuzza (1994). Read by Cathy Ball (Department of Linguistics, Georgetown University) for Edward Vanetten's Sunday School class.

http://www.georgetown.edu/faculty/ballc/oe/paternoster-oe.html

diachronic variation english13
Diachronic variation: English

Fæder ure þu þe eart on heofonum, si þin nama gehalgod. To becume þin rice.

Old English, circa 1000 (West Saxon Gospels)

Oure fadir that art in heuenes halewid be thi name, thi kyngdoom come to,

Middle English, circa 1400 (Wyclif Bible)

Our father which art in heaven, hallowed be thy Name. Thy kingdom come.

Early Modern English, circa 1600 (King James Bible)

Our Father, who is in heaven, may your name be kept holy. May your kingdom come into being.

Contemporary English

diachronic variation english14
Diachronic variation: English

Fæder ure þu þe eart on heofonum

Our Father, who is in heaven

  • Syntactic changes
    • Position of genitive pronoun ure (=our)
  • Morphological changes
    • Conjugation of be
    • Case: heofonum is the dative plural of heofon
    • Second person pronoun þu (þ = th)
diachronic variation english15
Diachronic variation: English
  • Semantic change
    • on > in
  • Phonetic change
    • Fæder [fædr]
    • ure [ur]
  • Spelling system
    • æ þ ð
diachronic variation french
Diachronic variation: French

Carles li reis, nostre emper[er]e magnes

Set anz tuz pleins ad estet en Espaigne:

Tresqu'en la mer cunquist la tere altaigne.

N'i ad castel ki devant lui remaigne;(Chanson de Roland, environ 1090)

Phonological change: Carles/Charles, castel/château ; reis / roi ; nostre / notre, altaigne/hautaine

Pronunciation of final s

diachronic variation french17
Diachronic variation: French

Carles li reis, nostre emper[er]e magnes

Set anz tuz pleins ad estet en Espaigne:

Tresqu'en la mer cunquist la tere altaigne.

N'i ad castel ki devant lui remaigne;(Chanson de Roland, environ 1090)

Morphological change:

Carles, reis, magnes : -s = subject case

diachronic variation french18
Diachronic variation: French

Carles li reis, nostre emper[er]e magnes

Set anz tuz pleins ad estet en Espaigne:

Tresqu'en la mer cunquist la tere altaigne.

N'i ad castel ki devant lui remaigne;(Chanson de Roland, environ 1090)

Syntactic change:

*Charles sept ans a été en Espagne

*Jusqu’à la mer (il) conquit la terre haute

diachronic variation french19
Diachronic variation: French

Carles li reis, nostre emper[er]e magnes

Set anz tuz pleins ad estet en Espaigne:

Tresqu'en la mer cunquist la tere altaigne.

N'i ad castel ki devant lui remaigne;(Chanson de Roland, environ 1090)

Lexical change (word replacement):

magne > grand; tresque > jusque; remanoir > rester

diachronic variation french20
Diachronic variation: French

Carles li reis, nostre emper[er]e magnes

Set anz tuz pleins ad estet en Espaigne:

Tresqu'en la mer cunquist la tere altaigne.

N'i ad castel ki devant lui remaigne;(Chanson de Roland, environ 1090)

Lexical semantic change:

altaigne = hautain, only the metaphorical sense remains

phonological change
Phonological change

Latin Français Italien

  • cantum > chant canto
  • campum > champ campo
  • carrum > char carro
  • carum > cher caro
  • caballum > cheval cavallo
phonological change22
Phonological change
  • casus > cas (emprunt médiéval au latin)
  • campania > campagne (emprunt au provençal ou au picard ou aux deux)
phonological change23
Phonological change

Latin Français Italien

  • tēlam toile tela
  • tēctum toit tetto
  • sēram soir sera
  • rēgem roi re
morphological change analogy
Morphological change: analogy

Latin Old Fr (1200) French

  • amo aim j’aime
  • amas aimes tu aimes
  • amat aimet il aime
  • amamus aimons nous aimons
  • amatis aimez vous aimez
  • amant aiment ils aiment
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Why the interest in variation?
    • Not all variation is possible. Possible variation tells us about the structure of linguistic knowledge
    • Avoid simplistic analyses:
      • double negation is illogical
      • meaning and syntax of modal auxiliaries in English
      • confusion of diachronic and synchronic explanations
conclusion29
Conclusion
  • Central object of linguistic inquiry: the individual speaker’s competence
  • But
    • Complexity of that competence (multiple systems for one speaker)
    • Inter-speaker variation
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