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Moderator: Jonah Erlebacher , Professor and Vice-Chair, Johns Hopkins Univeristy , Department of Materials Science and Engineering Panelists: Eric D. Wachsman , Director, University of Maryland Energy Research Center

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elements of energy storage small to utility scale solutions

Moderator:

Jonah Erlebacher, Professor and Vice-Chair, Johns Hopkins Univeristy, Department of Materials Science and Engineering

Panelists:

Eric D. Wachsman, Director, University of Maryland Energy Research Center

Jim McDowall, Business Development Manager, SAFT Energy Storage Systems

Ryan Franks, Technical Program Manager, National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA)

Elements of Energy Storage: Small to Utility Scale Solutions

slide2

Introduction and Agenda

10X improvement over Pt in PEM fuel cells

  • Development of New Technologies
  • Erlebacher, Wachsman
  • Workforce Education
  • JHU, UMd

Increasing scope

  • Technology Development and Implementation Case Studies
  • Wachsman, McDowall
  • Reducing Barriers to Broad Implementation
  • McDowall, Franks
slide3

Storage: the Missing Link in a Renewable Energy Future

Eric D. Wachsman, Director

University of Maryland Energy Research Center

www.energy.umd.edu

slide4

Renewable Energy

In one hour the sun supplies more energy than the world consumes in a year

Wind power 42% of U.S. grid capacity growth in 2012, beating natural gas, and well suited to Maryland

  • Already at “grid parity” in some locations
  • Major issue is transient nature of sun and wind
slide5

Addressing Transient Needs

Generation transients vs. demand transients

Time of day generation vs. demand

slide6

Nanostructured Electrochemical Supercapacitors

Nanostructured Electrostatic Supercapacitors

Banerjee, et al., Nature Nanotechnology (2009)

Liu and Lee, JACS (2008)

Electrostatic capacitors

Electrochemical capacitors

AAO-ALD embedded metal-insulator-metal device

Free-standing MnO2/PEDOT coaxial nanowires

Li ion batteries

Today’s EES

Battery R&D at UMD

Future EES

Li ion Superbatteries

Nanotechnology - surface area for charge/discharge rates

- geometric density for energy density

New materials - increase voltage, stability, cycle life....

slide7

SOFC

Fuel Cell R&D at UMD

SOFCs

  • World record performance
  • Operationalon conventional fuels
  • 10X power density of Bloomenergyat only ~2/3 temperature
  • Higher than IC Engine with ~2X the fuel efficiency

Electrochemical

capacitors

slide8

Enable Solar PV Generation

  • Only works when sun shines
    • Low capacity factor and energy produced (kWh) per rated power (kW)
  • Interconnect shuts system down when grid goes down
    • Does not provide backup/emergency power
  • Battery storage shifts peak but doubles system cost without generating any more power
  • Genset can provide backup but with low efficiency and high emissions, noise and maintenance
  • Fuel cells can generate the necessary baseload power to enable solar PV generation with high efficiency, and negligible emissions, noise and maintenance
slide9

Enable Islanded Microgrids

DG Microgrid

Distributed generation and islanded microgrids, enabled by fuel cells and batteries, will increase grid reliability and resiliency

Community Microgrid

saft energy storage systems

Saft Energy Storage Systems

Jim McDowall2013 Maryland Clean Energy Summit

saft a world leader for advanced and innovative applications
Saft. A world leader for advanced andinnovative applications

Saft is the world’s leading designer, developer and manufacturer of advanced technology batteries for industrial and defense applications.

The Group is implementing its strategy for high technology lithium-ion batteries for clean vehicles and energy storage systems.

With 4,066 employees worldwide,

Saft is present in 18 countries

Saft Energy Storage Systems - 2013 Maryland Clean Energy Summit

jacksonville factory of the future
Jacksonville ‘Factory of the Future’
  • Construction of complete battery systems, automated cell manufacture through module production to assembly into ISO containers
  • 235,000ft2 under roof, with a production capability of 372 MWh per year by 2015
        • One of the largest rooftop photovoltaic systems in Florida with over 1 MW of solar power

Saft Energy Storage Systems - 2013 Maryland Clean Energy Summit

case study septa philadelphia
Case study – SEPTA, Philadelphia
  • Store energy from deceleratingtrains and use it for accelerating trains
  • Demand-side participation in the PJM frequency regulation marketplace
  • Exploiting load as a resource

Saft Energy Storage Systems - 2013 Maryland Clean Energy Summit

case study southern california utility
Case study – Southern California utility

The problem : coping with high penetration of PV on feeders

  • Working with storage at two levels
    • Substation-based (containerized)
    • Small, distributed systems (Community Energy Storage)
  • 2-3 hours of storage
  • Higher value closer to consumer
    • But higher cost

Saft Energy Storage Systems - 2013 Maryland Clean Energy Summit

case study puerto rico pv facilities
Case study – Puerto Rico PV facilities

The problem : avoiding the destabilizing effect of variable generation

  • PREPA Minimum Technical Requirements
    • Ramp rate – 10% per minute
    • Frequency response – up to 10% of facility rating
  • Possible model for other islands
    • …and the mainland?
  • No facility yet meets the MTRs
    • But coming soon…

Saft Energy Storage Systems - 2013 Maryland Clean Energy Summit

many things to many people energy storage end uses

Many Things to Many People: Energy Storage End Uses

Ryan Franks

NEMA

Technical Program Manager

applications use cases
Applications/Use Cases
  • ES is absolutely key to realizing the full potential of renewables due to their intermittent nature
  • Integration with renewables is but one category of uses of ES
  • Total number varies by task force, but there are between one and two dozen end uses for ES which are economically viable
  • One or more uses over a day is/will be common
slide18

CPUC Final Staff Report: Energy Storage Framework: http://www.cpuc.ca.gov/PUC/energy/electric/storage.htm

why care about codes and standards
Why care about Codes and Standards?
  • Business and economics
    • An R&D investment is made to bring technology to the market and projects market introduction, sales and profits
    • Codes and standards ‘showstoppers’ cause problems that must be addressed
    • Paralleling R&D with codes and standards work fosters a more timely and better economic outcome
uniform comparison and reporting
Uniform comparison and reporting
  • Standardization will mitigate risk to investors, increase adoption of energy storage, and decrease costs through manufacturing at scale
  • Standardization in ES performance allows storage mediums to be compared on a level platform
    • Enables a user or customer to select which product best suits their application, which is a stated need of the market
  • Lack of a uniform evaluation to determine system performance is causing confusion in the market
doe pnnl performance protocol
DOE/PNNL Performance Protocol
  • Technology Agnostic: driven by representative duty cycle
  • Written by 100+ stakeholders: manufacturers, integrators, PUCs, ISOs, industry groups, academia, and utilities
  • Allows for ongoing expansion to future use cases

http://www.pnl.gov/main/publications/external/technical_reports/PNNL-22010.pdf

protocol framework
Protocol Framework

Electrical Out

Electrical In

Non-electrical Out

  • Measurement Procedure
  • What to measure
  • How to measure
  • Temperature
  • Pressure
  • Current
  • Voltage
  • Determination of relevant metrics
  • How to calculate from measurements
  • When to measure it
  • Peak Power
  • Capacity
  • Ramp rate
  • Response time
  • Available energy at various power

Maximum Power

Standby Losses

TBD

TBD

Maximum Power

Standby Losses

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD

the broader standards picture
The Broader Standards Picture
  • In addition to performance and test reporting:
    • Safety
    • Availability, reliability, maintenance
    • Electromagnetic compatibility
    • Lifetime, mean time before failure, lifecycle
    • Communication protocols, interoperability
  • Taken on domestically via ANSI/NEMA
  • Taken on internationally via IEC
  • Cooperation with SGIP, EPRI, and other stakeholder groups
slide25

Points for Discussion

Development of New Technologies

What are the proper technologies to focus upon in Maryland?

How do we address barriers to the evolution of energy storage and distribution?

How do we ensure the workforce is sufficiently skilled and trained to maintain advanced energy storage and distribution systems?

What challenges exist in coordinating energy technology growth in MD with that of the entire nation?

Workforce Education

Increasing scope

Technology Development and Implementation Case Studies

Reducing Barriers to Broad Implementation