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Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power. Dr. Martin Stickel. ICCI International Energy and Environment Fair and Conference Isanbul, 14 th May 2010. Fichtner GmbH & Co. KG Photovoltaics and Concentrated Solar Power Financial Results depending on Plant Location Summary. Agenda.

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Photovoltaics versus Concentrated Solar Power

Dr. Martin Stickel


International Energy and Environment Fair and Conference

Isanbul, 14th May 2010

Fichtner GmbH & Co. KG

Photovoltaics and Concentrated Solar Power

Financial Results depending on Plant Location


the fichtner group
The Fichtner Group
  • Established in 1922 – still a family-owned concern
  • Germany’s biggest independent engineering and consultancy enterprise
  • More than 1700 employees worldwide – 450 in our Home Office
  • Project experience in 150 countries
  • Over 1200 ongoing projects – around 650 in our Home Office
  • Active on behalf of:• enterprises in the central services and utilities sector • energy-intensive industries• international development and commercial banks • government and communal institutions and authorities
  • Total turnover of 179 million € in 2008 – 67% international turnover


fichtner independent engineering and consulting
FICHTNER – Independent Engineering and Consulting

Founded in 1922 and 100% family owned since then

Germany’s biggest independent engineering and consultancy company

Staff strength:

Home office (Stuttgart) ca. 450

Total ca. 1,700

Turn-over 2008:

Home office: 122 million EUR

Total: 179 million EUR

On a global level FICHTNER is on average involved in approx.1,200 projects with an overall investment volume of about 60 billion EUR.

FICHTNERis represented in more than 50 countries worldwide.

f ichtner turkey

FICHTNERhas been working for more than 40 years on various projects in Turkey

Established in July 2008, FICHTNER Turkey is100% owned by FICHTNER Germany

Completed numerous projects mainly in the private sector

Brought together experienced international experts & local engineers/consultantsand worked on the most important projects of Turkey

Vision of FICHTNER Turkey:

Become one of the biggest well established engineering companies in the region

Provide state-of-the art engineering and technical services to meet the demands of the growing energy market

Make use of Turkey’s young population: Train local engineers and technical staff to make them compatible with international experts

Use them for the most challenging projects in the region and worldwide

renewable energy technologies
Renewable Energy Technologies


Wind Power

Solarthermal Power


Geothermal Power

Solid Biomass

Sewage and Landfill Gas


Biomass to Liquid (BtL)

Fuel Cells

our range of engineering and consultancy services
Our Range of Engineering and Consultancy Services
  • Project phaseOur serviceObjective
  • Concept study Development and review of Definition of approach realization concepts
  • Feasibility study Investigation of technical and Financing agreement/depiction of financial viability financial performance
  • Conceptual and Drawing up permit Construction and operation layoutengineering application documents permits
  • Detail engineering Drawing up tender documents Project- and client-specific tender documents
  • Tendering and Bid evaluation and Plant procurement to meet quality,contractaward contract negotiations time and cost requirements
  • Construction and installation Site supervision Functional plant
  • Commissioning / test operationSupervision of commissioning Production-ready plantand tests
  • Operation Check of routine operation Regular commercial utilization
Fichtner GmbH & Co. KG

Photovoltaics and Concentrated Solar Power

Financial Results depending on Plant Location


solar irradiation in turkey
Solar Irradiation in Turkey

Turkey shows similar irradiation characteristics as Spain, one of the largest solar energy markets.

pv grid parity in germany
PV „Grid Parity“ in Germany

Bundesverband Solarwirtschaft


Source: Juwi AG

photovoltaic power module types
Photovoltaic Power - Module Types
  • Mono-crystalline silicon: Most efficient technology (efficiencies of around 18% (commercial) to 28% (research)
  • Multi-crystalline silicon: Cheaper than mono-crystalline silicon but also less efficient. Research cells approach 24% efficiency, and commercial modules approach around 16% efficiency.
  • Thin film:
    • Cheaper than crystalline silicon but less efficient.
    • Various materials (amorphous silicon, Cadmium Telluride, Copper Indium Diselluride (CIS))

Selection of the technology depending on: site, irradiation, temperature, costs vs. efficiency etc.

concentrated solar power csp
Concentrated Solar Power (CSP)
  • General Technology Principle
    • Concentration of solar energy flow (direct irradiation required)
    • Conversion of Solar irradiation into high temperature heat
    • Conversion of high temperature heat into mechanical energy
    • Conventional power generation technology
  • Characteristics
    • High energy density
    • Conventional components used (hybridisation possible)
    • Economy of scale leads to large scale plants
    • Possibility of thermal energy storage
  • Types of Solar Thermal Power Plants
    • Parabolic Trough
    • Fresnel Trough
    • Solar Tower (Central Receiver)
    • Parabolic Dish (Dish/Stirling)
    • Solar Chimney
parabolic trough



370°C, 100bar

Solar HX

Air and vapour

Steam turbine

30 MW



G ~






ParabolicTrough Field

Electricityto the grid

Parabolic Trough

Source: Fichtner

csp advantage operation without sunshine
CSP Advantage: Operation without Sunshine

Thermal storage transfers excess solar heat into evening hours.

  • Extension of full load operation to night time hours
  • Reduction of part load operation (cloud transients)
  • Dispatchable power generation
  • State-of-the-art technology: Two-tank molten salt storage (E.g. AndaSol 1-3: 1050 MWh [7.5 h])
trends expectations
Trends & Expectations

Capital Costs PV plants:

2.5-4 €/Wp EPC prices depending on module type and tracking system

Decreasing module costs (future 1€/Wp), i.e. even lower EPC prices

Capital Costs CSP plants:

4-6 €/Wp (parabolic trough, 50MW)

Due to technological innovations and economies of scale decreasing electricity generation costs expected

Peak load or “base load”

PV: Peak load plants purely depending on global solar irradiation

CSP: Possibility of energy storage & relatively high predictability of plant availability

Project Capacities

PV: 1kW – 50MW

CSP: Parabolic trough 10MW – 300MW Fresnel 30MW (first commercial plant)

Fichtner GmbH & Co. KG

Photovoltaics and Concentrated Solar Power

Financial Results depending on Plant Location


feasibility of solar projects
Feasibility of Solar Projects

Plant Concept & Simulation of Electricity Generation

Revenues for Electricity Sales

Feed-in Tariff


Plant OPEX

Modelling of Project Economics

Fichtner Cost Database

Net present value

Internal rate of return

Levelized electricity costs…

site assessment
Site Assessment

Source: Google Maps

site assessment1
Site Assessment
  • Example: Johannesburg, South Africa
Fichtner GmbH & Co. KG

Photovoltaics and Concentrated Solar Power

Financial Results depending on Plant Location


pv projection of module production capacity
PV: Projection of Module Production Capacity

Source: Paula Mints, Navigant Consulting, Inc., 2009

  • No general „better“ technology but project specific technology selection
      • Size, topography, irradiation (global / direct), Accessibility, grid condition
      • Feed-in tariffs
      • Relevance of dispatchability / storage
  • Design optimization required for each project
  • Thorough project development and due diligence process
      • Reliable design
      • “Bankable” EPC and O&M Contracts
        • performance and plant acceptance criteria and procedures
        • liquidated damages and incentive schemes
      • Reliable Yield Forecasts
  • Enormous potential for solar technologies in Turkey and worldwide
  • Whom to contact?


Büyükdere Cad. 87/5

34387 Mecidiyeköy



Phone 212- 2171767

Fax 212-2178124

Mobile 0549-2171775



Sarweystraße 3

70191 Stuttgart


Dr. Martin Stickel

Manager PV / Solar Technologies

Phone +49 (0)711 8995-684

Fax +49 (0)711 8995-495

Mobile +49 (0) 172 6358294


typical project constellation
Typical Project Constellation



Insurance company




Solar Project

Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV)







O&M Contract

Power purchase agreement

EPC Contract


Service Company

EPC contractor(s)


  • Implementation of a long life power plants with high energy yield and availability
  • Proper and safe operation complying with the relevant requirements
  • Low cost, high return on investment
typical solar power technical due diligence
Typical Solar Power Technical Due Diligence

Phase I: Pre-Financial Close Due Diligence

  • Project structure and obligations of project parties
  • Solar radiation measurements and long-term global solar radiation assumptions
  • Technical concept such as layout, grid connection, civil works
  • Energy yield assessment as to the reliability of the input data, simulation, methods and results (SOLPRO / PVSYST)
  • Suitability of site (e.g. radiation, temperature, site complexity, soil conditions)
  • Contracts / project agreements including mainly: EPC-Contract, grid connection agreement, PPA, O&M, technical and administrative operation
  • Adequacy of the technical warranties and verification procedures (e.g. performance test, availability, technical characteristics)
  • Qualification of involved parties, QC/QA concept
  • Permits and licenses (status, constraints e.g. due to noise, etc.)
  • Project insurances
  • Time schedule /
  • Project management / risk management
  • Financial model: elaboration of model or providing input data to bank’s / financial advisor’s model
  • Analysis of project sensitivities / risk assessment

Facilitate investment / financing decisions

Conceptual study and decision-making phase

Engineering and contract award



typical solar power technical due diligence1
Typical Solar Power Technical Due Diligence

Phase II: Construction Monitoring

  • Construction monitoring (compliance with contract / specifications)
  • Compliance with project schedule
  • Review of EPC contractor‘s / owner‘s progress report
  • Site and workshop inspections
  • Preparation of monthly or quarterly progress reports

Facilitate investment / financing decisions

Phase III: Testing and completion certificate

Conceptual study and decision-making phase

  • Certification of completion
  • Review of commissioning and of trial operation
  • Attendance and monitoring of the performance and reliability tests
  • Review of performance test results in view of liquidated damages requests
  • PV plant installation and mounting inspections

Engineering and contract award

Phase IV: Monitoring during term of project loan facilities


  • Carry out annual site visits
  • Preparation of (semi-) annual operating status reports including
    • operating performance (availability, power performance, energy yield)
    • maintenance and extraordinary events


pv world market 2008
PV World Market 2008

Bundesverband Solarwirtschaft

integrated expertise



Water and Infrastructure

IT, Economics and Finances

Integrated Expertise

Energy Technology

Comprehensive technological know-how as foundation

  • conventional technologies
  • innovative technologies / renewable energies

Power Supply

Extensive planning experience in all project phases

Classical planning services are rounded off by

our over-arching expertise in consultancy

Environmental Technology


Broad-based range of services from one source

Complete solutions on a sound technical and economic footing

integrated solar combined cycle iscc
Integrated Solar Combined Cycle (ISCC)

Stack Exhaust




540°C, 100bar

Solar HX


Air and vapour

Steam turbine

60 MW

G ~










ParabolicTrough Field

Electricityto the grid

Gas turbine 90 MW

Solar Island

Combined Cycle Island

G ~

solar thermal power plants fresnel
Solar Thermal Power Plants – Fresnel
  • Principle / Characteristics
    • Line-focussing with long mirror strips onto fixed absorber
    • Lower optical efficiency compared to parabolic trough
    • More simple design offers potentially lower investment cost
    • Direct steam generation in absorber (25 – 100 bar / 270 – 550°C)
    • Conventional water-steam-cycle (now saturated, future superheated)
    • Efficient use of land due to compact design
  • Status
    • Relatively new technology
    • Several pilot plants in operation in Australia, Spain and USA
    • First pre-commercial demonstration plant for electricity generation
    • (5 MWe) started operation end of 2008 in California
    • First large scale plant shall start operation in 2012 in California
    • using Ausra’s Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector technology.
    • New 30MW project announced in Spain, recent large investment by Swiss utility

Solar Thermal Power Plants – Solar Tower

  • Principle / Characteristics
    • Tracked field of mirrors („heliostats“), point focussing (factor > 500)
    • Concentration on small area on top of the tower („receiver“)
    • High concentration factors = high temperatures (up to 700°C)
    • High solar-electric efficiency due to higher temperatures
    • Different heat transfer fluids (molten salt, air, water/steam)
    • generation of steam by heat exchanger
    • conventional water-steam-cycle
  • Status
    • Potential successfully demonstrated in several large pilot plants
    • Solar Tower technologies at different development stages
    • First two commercial plants in operation in Spain (PS 10 & 20)
    • Several large plants (>100 MWe) under development in US
    • Despite first commercial plants still more R&D needed
pv related services
PV related services
  • technical due diligences - on behalf of lenders as well as investors
  • techno-economic feasibility and conceptual studies
  • yield projections
  • specifications for large-scale PV installations
  • check of construction and operating contracts - EPC and O&M - under their technical and commercial aspects
  • supervision of construction and progress monitoring
  • participation in acceptance tests
  • verification of electricity yields during operation
  • other PV related technical advisory
methodology financial calculation
Methodology – Financial Calculation
  • Levelized electricity costs (LEC) in €/kWh

It Investment expenditures in the year t in €

MtOperations and maintenance expenditures in the year t in €

Et Electricity generation in the year t in kWh

i Discount rate

n Life time of the system in years

site assessment2
Site Assessment
  • Nassau, Bahamas
extract of reference projects solar thermal
Extract of Reference Projects – Solar Thermal

Spain, AndaSol-1, -2, -3:

Three Solar Rankine Cycle Plants with storage, each 50 MWe

Spain, PS-10

10 MW Central Receiver Plant

BMU / KfW, ZIP Program

Ten research projects for Market Introduction of Solar Technology

Greece, Theseus AE

Project Company

50 MW Solar Rankine Cycle Plant

Spain, RentaSolar S.A.

Project Company for

PV Power Plants in Spain

Abu Dhabi:

Design and Engineering

100 MWe CST Plant

Arizona, USA

Project Development for 250 MWe Solar Rankine Cycle Plant

India, Mathania

140 MWe ISCC (solar 30 MWe)

World Bank

Global Market Initiative (GMI)EM-Power


Site Selection and Feasibility Study for 200 Mwe CST Plant

Egypt, Kuraymat:

150 MWe ISCC (solar 20 MWe)

Morocco, Ain Beni Mathar

400 MWe ISCC (solar 20 MWe)


Project Development for 50 MWe Solar Rankine Cycle Plant


Site Selection and

Feasibility Study 200 MW CST Plant

Egypt, El Nasr

Solar Process Heat Plant

solar irradiation
Solar Irradiation

Different technologies use different type of irradiation.

solar thermal power plants parabolic trough
Solar Thermal Power Plants – Parabolic Trough
  • Principle / Characteristics
    • Tracked parabolic trough focuses on a „receiver“ (up to factor 100)
    • Heat transfer fluid (currently synthetic oil) heats up to 393°C in receiver
    • Generation of superheated steam via solar heat exchanger
    • Conventional water-steam-cycle
    • Possibility to store thermal energy (currently molten salt storage)
    • Solar-to-electric efficiency of 12-16%
  • Status
    • Most mature and bankable CSP technology
    • First nine plants (SEGS plants) successfully in operation
    • since more than 20 years in California
    • Several Gigawatts of parabolic trough power plants in
    • planning or already under construction
    • Major cost reduction due to mass production, economy
    • of scale and further technological advancements
    • Next steps: Direct steam generation + implementation
    • of new storage technologies (e.g. concrete)