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Lecture 15 Later Byzantium

Lecture 15 Later Byzantium. Dr. Ann T. Orlando 2 October 2014. Introduction. Pressure on Eastern Christianity from Islam Eastern Response Summary of Ecumenical Councils Pressure from Turks. Seventh and Eighth Century Eastern Roman Empire. Pressure from Rise of Islam

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Lecture 15 Later Byzantium

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  1. Lecture 15 Later Byzantium Dr. Ann T. Orlando 2October 2014

  2. Introduction • Pressure on Eastern Christianity from Islam • Eastern Response • Summary of Ecumenical Councils • Pressure from Turks

  3. Seventh and Eighth Century Eastern Roman Empire • Pressure from Rise of Islam • Intense military pressure • Loss of Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem • Pressure from Consolidation of independent Western Europe • Papal ties to Franks • Charlemagne as ‘Holy Roman Emperor’ • Theological Pressure • Iconoclast controversy • Monothelete controversy

  4. Justinian’s Empire (560) and Islamic (Arab) Conquests by 750 AD

  5. Eastern Response to Islam • Most economically important region of Eastern Empire overrun by Muslim armies • Alexandria, most important port, center of learning and source of grain • Antioch, Western terminus of spice trade • Many Christians in Egypt and Syria would rather live under Muslims than Byzantines • Nestorians • Monophysites • To win ‘hearts and minds’ Byzantium tries to compromise theology • Monthelite • Iconoclasm

  6. Maximus the Confessor (580-662) • To try to bring Monophysites back under imperial control against Arabs • Patriarch of Constantinople, Sergius proposes ‘monothelete’ Christology or that Christ had one will • Pope Honorius (625-638) goes along with this • Pope Martin I at First Lateran Council in Rome rejects this in 649, in opposition to Emperor and much of Eastern Church • In any case Monophysites also reject this • Maximus the Confessor Eastern theologian who supported Chalcedon • Gave deepest theological arguments in support of two complete natures, against monothelete • Was persecuted and tortured by Emperor Heraclius • Eventually Eastern Church returns to Chalcedonian formula in Third Council of Constantinople (680)

  7. Iconoclast Controversy • Emperors Leo III (717-741), Constantine V (741-763) • Supported “image breaking” iconoclasm as a way to attract Muslims to Christian orthodoxy • Historical Note: Emperor Leo III dropped all military support of Papacy against Lombards, forcing Pope Stephen II into an alliance with Pepin the Short • Monks vehemently opposed iconoclasts • John Damascene (675-749) • Monk at St. Sabas near Jerusalem • Strong theological defense of icons • Differentiated types of worship and honor

  8. Second Council of Nicea, 787 • Also known as Seventh Ecumenical Council • Called by Empress Irene, who supported icons (iconodule) • Following St. John Damascene, distinguished types of devotions • Irene venerated as a saint, East and West • Western Reaction • Problem: Eastern church did not invite anyone from West to participate • Another problem: poor translation from Greek into Latin • Result: Charlemagne did not accept Nicea II • Theodulf wrote LibriCarolini condemning worship of images • Nicea II was recognized by Pope AdrianI

  9. Summary of SevenEcumenical Councils • Nicea I, 325, called by Constantine the Great • Condemned Arianism • Son of one substance with the Father • Nicene Creed • Constantinople I, 381, Called by Theodosius the Great • Affirmed divinity of Holy Spirit • Modified Creed; what we have now • Ephesus, 431, called by Theodosius II • Condemned Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople • Jesus was not two separate persons, but one person both human and divine • Mary as ‘Theotokos’ Mother of God • Chalcedon, 450, called by Empress Pulcharia at request of Pope St. Leo I (the Great) • Condemned monophysites: single nature • Christ has two natures: human and divine (Leo’s Tome • Second Council of Constantinople, 553, Called by Justinian • Condemned Theodore of Mosuestia and Origen • Third Council of Constantinople, 680, called by Emperor Constantine Pogonatus • Condemned Monothelete and Pope Honorius • Second Council of Nicea, 787, called by Empress Irene • Condemned iconoclasts • Not accepted by Charlemagne

  10. ‘The Great Schism’(not to be confused with the Great Western Schism) • Tensions between Catholic West and Orthodox East had been developing for centuries before 1054 • Liturgical (unleavened bread at Eucharist) • Lingual (filioque) • Geographical (contested areas in Balkans) • Political (Western Holy Roman Emperor, ecclesial relation between Pope and Patriarch)

  11. Events of 1054 • In 1054 legates representing Pope Leo IX went to Constantinople and Patriarch Michael Cerularius to resolve differences • Papal legates insisted on primacy of Rome, denying ecumenical patriarch title to patriarch of Constantinople • Cerularius excommunicates papal legates; legates excommunicate him • As a result • Catholic West and Orthodox East accuse each other of heresy and schism • Latin suppressed in Greek East; Greek suppressed in Latin West

  12. After 1054 • Some unsuccessful efforts during the Middle Ages at reunification for political and military reasons • First Crusade, 1095 • Second Council of Lyon, 1274 • Council of Florence, 1439 • Mutual excommunications lifted by Pope Paul VI and Ecumenical Patriarch in 1965

  13. The Seljuk Turks • ‘Turks’ nomadic tribes from central Asia • Mongols migrate northeast in 6th-7th C AD • In 13th C dominate all of northern Asian landmass from Korea to eastern Europe • In 11th C Seljuk Turks spread from central Asia and overrun Arab lands • Also place great pressure on Byzantium • In 1095, Byzantine Emperor asks the Pope to send Western troops to defend Christian East; beginning of Crusades

  14. Ottoman Turks (c. 1225-1918) • In 13th C Ottomans (pushed by Mongols) invade Seljuk-controlled area • Ottomans completely replace Seljuk Turks and Arabs further West • Conquer Constantinople in 1453, ending Byzantine Empire • Threaten Vienna in 1532 and 1683 • Threaten to recapture Spain, defeated at naval Battle of Lepanto in 1571 • Force in southern Mediterranean and Balkans until end of WWI • Throughout, great animosity between Turks and Arabs (e.g., Lawrence of Arabia)

  15. Assignments: Two Papers • One on Benedict’s Rule • Another selected from: • Pope Gelasius, Letter to the Emperor, • Maximus Confessor, Letter • John of Damascus, Defense of Icons • Donation of Constantine • Einhard, Life of Charlemagne • Conversion of Vladimir

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