FACTORY FOR FISH FEED PRODUCTION IN THE OMAHENENE CITY NAMIBIAN Title: Methodology for the Exploitation of the Industrial Equipments Author: Engineer Danilo Peláez Hogg Collaborator: Operator Andreas Iiyambo Engineer Ernesto February 15th, 2013
Objective: To assure the continuous Production with the required quality, exploding to the maximum and lengthening the useful life of the Industrial Equipments.
Introduction: After a rigorous study of the productive process, installed Equipments and incorporating the experience acquired in the production of food Pellets, I gave myself the task of creating a document where we can guarantee the continuous production with the required quality, exploiting to the maximum the installed capacity, guaranteeing the useful life of the Industrial Equipments.
Development: The work was developed in the same order of the current technological flow, outlining the different aspects to have in consideration in the Exploitation of the different systems of the productive process. After a rigorous study of the different systems several violations of the productive Process were detected, which were reflected below: I-study: 1 – The system of Weighing: • The chute of the Weight stayed loaded by long periods of time, subjecting to the cells to unnecessary static loads, diminishing its useful life.
2 – The system of Milling: • The Materials were milled with a sieve (2,5mm), being necessary to mill with one finer when we produce the Pellets of 2mm. • The Imams didn't clean periodically, to avoid that ferrous particles arrive to the interior of the Camera of the Hammer Mill. • A periodic checkup of the pieces didn't exist inside the Camera of the Hammer Mill, substituting them appropriately returning to the Mill the appropriate time of mill for the different ones formulates of the productive process. 3 – The system of Mixing: • A daily checkup of the time of mixing didn't exist , although this process is automatic it can lose temper for causes unaware to the production, stopping to obtain a Homogeneous mixture that can guarantee that each Pellet has the same nutritional requirements. • If it diminishes the time of Mixing it cannot guarantee a Homogeneous mixture. • If it increases the time of mixing the finest particles spread to separate the Mixture.
4 – The System of Pelletizing and Cooling: • The operator didn't stay in the work position, a methodology of exploitation was made so that the operator stays 90% of the time of work because: • We should control the productive Parameters guaranteeing the production with the required quality. • It is the place where the Pellets of foods are obtained for the different stadiums of the Tilapia and the African Catfish. • It is the place from where we can detect any problem of the productive process. • It is the place where The Operator should be prepared to guarantee the continuous production of different formulated feed. • It is the place where we waste the biggest quantity of energy in the productive process. • It is the place where the humidity is added to the Mixture in a manual way, decisive factor in the obtaining of productive waste and in the formation of the corrosion inside some Industrial Equipments. • It is the place it should guarantee the opportune stop of any electric motor, avoiding damages in their interior. • It is the suitable place to control the productive process.
5 – The System of Packing: • The band transporter stayed with load static for long periods of time, subjecting to unnecessary loads to the Bearings, rollers, rubber band, axes, etc., diminishing its useful life. • II- Methodology for the exploitation of the Industrial Equipments. • The work was carried out for work sections: • 1 - The system of Weighing. • 2 - The system of Milling. • 3 - The system of Mixing. • 4 -The system of Pelletizing and Cooling. • 5 - The system of packing. • 6 - The storage system
1-The system of weighing Equipment: weight, RT1, R1 and S2 Responsible: Andrea and Danilo Activity to carry out: Weight of matters and transportation. Steps for their exploitation: 1- To revise the Metallic mesh against strange particles, to clean or to substitute if it is necessary. 2 - To revise that the rotational sensor this working and the totally closed floodgate. 3- To verify the operation of the terminal of the weight, pressing the buttons of work. 4- The weight should check sometime in the year for a specialized company to correct the errors that can exist in the weigh process, to guarantee the nutritional parameters that it demands the it formulates dedicated to the feeding of the different stadiums of the Tilapia and the African Catfish.
5 - Before weighing the Bache it should be free the Hopper (S2), to maintain little time the cells with weight, to remember that the weigh is not built to store materials for long time, this can cause errors of readings, damages in the weight cells and in the worst in the cases it is necessary to substitute them causing stopped accidental for a wrong handling of the system. 6–The operator should guarantee that the materials do not fall toward to the bottom of the Weight, to weigh each materials type the weight should mark the number zero, the responsible of the system must check and control the Weight, it must not be allowed that another person to make the work this can alter the nutritional norms in the formulation. 7-When you press the button (R1) in the Slate of Control opening the floodgate (R1), automatically the Transporter enters in operation (RT1) transferring the product until the Hopper (S2), the operator can check as minimum once a day the time of transportation (1.15minute approximately), in the event of a considerable increase the operator should be to find the cause of the damage. 8-The operator cannot trust of the signs of control, it can check visually the one filled of the Hopper (S2) through the finder located in the inferior part of the Hopper.
9-The operator must check after the transportation of the materials, if closes the floodgate automatically (R1), it is free the resolvable sensor and if finish the operation the transporter (RT1). 10-During the operation to check as minimum once a day the existence of noises, heating, abnormal vibrations and any visual damage that it can exist in the weighed process. 11-The operator must clean after each Batch the metallic mesh against strange particles. 12 - The system should be totally cleaning when concluding the work. Notices: The weight should always be empty at the end of the work, remembering that this Hopper is not designed to store any material type, only in extreme cases the system when one has the solution in next hours can stay with weight.
4 - System of Pelleting and Cooling Equipments: S4, R5, AL2, AC1, GR1, E1, COOLER, AS1, ES1 and E2 Responsible: Andrea and Danilo Activity to carry out: Pelleting and cooling of the feeds for fish. Steps for their exploitation: 1-when the first batch arrives to the Hopper (S4), the Floodgate (R5) it should be tightly closed. 2-The operator must check if there is water in the technological flow beside the Pellet Mill. 3-The operator before beginning the work must check and to adjust the rollers with the interior surface of the Matrix, if the adjustment is not the appropriate one to substitute the damaged piece.
4 - When you press the button (R5) in the Panel Control the floodgate opens (R5) allowing to pass the product until the Feeder (AL2), the operator operated the system from a slate located to the Left side of the area of Pellet Mill. This is the place of more important work of the process of production of balanced foods, it is where through the experience and ability of the operator guarantees the production planned with the speed and quality that it demands the elaboration of the food with the different formulations for the different stadiums of the cultivation of fish (Tilapia and Catfish). It is the place where the operator should remain the biggest quantity in the time to guarantee the production, it should only leave the area when the technological process demands it and it is also the position of suitable work to detect any technical abnormality in the technological equipments, avoiding bigger damages that can cause lingering stops of the production. 5 - The properly trained operator pressed the button(GR1, AC1 and AL2) respectively, it appealed to its experience and ability in dependence of the type materials or local ingredients it prevails in it formulates it, Matrix to use and the quantity of water (Liter/hour) to incorporate to the process.
6-Parameters to keep in mind in the moment of the startup: • The variation of frequency of the Feeder should be among 7 - 7.5 ohm in the moment of the startup and after the setting in march of the equipment you should increase every 8-10 minutes of work the feeding speed to the press of the Pellet Mill until the range of 12-13 ohm, this depends on the type of feed, matrix to use and the ability of the Operator. • The consumption of current of the motor of the Pellet Mill in the moment of the startup should not exceed 40amp and when it reaches the work régime it should stay stable among 52-58 amp, it should never exceed the nominal consumption of the motor 60amp. • The electric Panel should mark 380-400volts, if the motor works for long periods with a higher voltage to the nominal one it can damage those reeled of the motor and if the motor works with a lower voltage to the nominal one it loses the work power causing stopped productive. • To control the entrance of water to the conditioner (Liter/hour), it depends of it formulates , of the matrix type and of the ability of the operator. 7-When in the press of the Pellet Mill it is guaranteed a pressed appropriate having in consideration the previous parameters the water is connected to the conditioner to achieve a mixture with a suitable cohesion to guarantee a better one pressed and to diminish the productive waste.
8-When the feeding speed increases to the press of the Pellet Mill we have to guarantee a food with quality and with the smallest quantity in productive waste, without forgetting the daily production plan. 9-The operator has to revise in a visual way, if automatically after the setting in progress of the equipments (GR1, AL2 and AC1) they entered in operation (E1, AS1 and ES1) to guarantee the transfer of the pellets until the cooler, otherwise he/she should stop the productive process to solve the existent problem. 10-The operator has to revise the fall free of the feed to the cooler, he/she cannot forget that the mixture contains water; this can cause obstructions in the pipes of discharge of the press and of the Elevator (E1). 11- To place an empty bag to the exit of the Cyclone (ES1) and of the Cooler to pick the productive waste, to substitute if it is necessary during the productive process. 12-The operator appealing to their work ability has to manipulate the valves of the Cooler to guarantee the time of necessary cooling of the feed, having in consideration that the bag of the waste cannot have feed pellets and in the stored bags they should not have a great percent of powders, having to have present that is formed a powder percent in the process of manipulation.
13 - The powder percent should not overcome 4% of the final production, at the present time it is in 5%, due to mechanical damages in the press of the Pellet Mill (Matrix and cut knife) and an excess of they wear away the hammers of the hammer Mill, this makes necessary the substitution of the pieces for new. 14 - The operator must check the automatic operation of the Cooler, having in consideration the time of retention of the feed inside the Cooler and of the time of operation of the discharge system, a good cooling of the feed (Exit of the cooling + 5°C of the ambient temperature) it guarantees less powder emergence in the process of Cooling, manipulation, several months of storage of the final production and an easy manipulation in the area of it sacks. 15-The operator constantly can check the finder of the Hooper (S4) when the low level appears in the superior part he/she has to press the button (R3) to open the floodgate having in consideration that the reducer of the Mixer should be working, to guarantee the time of mixed and transportation of the batch until the Hooper (S4) without causing stopped accidental in the production.
16 - The operator when the production ends it must check the consumption of the motor of the Pellet Mill, when the ammeter marks the consumption without load (20amp) to press the button (AL1 and AC1), some minutes before the water should be disconnected to the entrance of the Conditioner (AC1) and you proceeds to clean the Matrix with a mixture of maize and oil leaving it list for next day of work. 17-The operative has to guarantee the cooling of the last kilograms of the production manually, pressing in the control slate the button of the COOLER each 30 seconds, until it is empty the interior of the cooler, one cannot leave feed inside this can contaminate the following production. 18- To clean the system and the workspace when finishing the production. 19 - The operator has that check constantly the existence of vibrations, noises and abnormal temperatures in the equipments of the System, to stop if it is necessary. Notices: The operator should control in each batch the main parameters of the productive process to have a documentation that allows us to obtain a feed with the biggest possible quality.
To guarantee a good exploitation of the industrial equipments of the factory of the feed production in Namibia it is necessary the construction of a Warehouse for the materials and product finished to be able to complete the different norms of Storage guaranteeing the following points: 1. Correct location of each materials type avoiding the contamination of the same ones. 2. To store the materials completing the norms of security and protection, maintaining a correct ventilation of the materials avoiding fires that can cause bigger damages to the productive process. 3. To eliminate the materials of the production area, avoiding the manipulation of the same ones inside the productive process. 4. To guarantee the appropriate storage of the final production completing the norms of security and protection. 5. To lengthen the time of storage of the materials and of the final production. 6. To guarantee an easy manipulation of the products. 7. To conserve the quality of the materials and of the final production.
Another aspect that limits a correct exploitation and uses of the equipments for the sake of achieving a feed of quality it is the necessity of a laboratory to be able to detect any abnormality on time in the materials for example: 1. A materials with high content of humidity, it can break down in a short period of time, contaminating other materials stored that when being used in the feed production it reduces the quality of the finished product. 2. Materials polluted can cause illnesses in the Tilapias and in the African Catfish. If it is detected the existent bacteria on time in the materials they can take some measures to avoid the propagation of the possible illness of the cultivation fish. 3. The finished product should be analyzed and to check if it fulfills the nutritional norms used in the formulation. In this work they lack the storage system since the feed factory for fish located in Omahenene Namibia it doesn't consist of an appropriate warehouse to make complete the different storage norms and protection that govern in the different parts of the world.
Recommendations: 1- To continue fulfilling the Methodology of work of the Industrial Equipments. 2- To improve technical Level of the Operators, elevating their experience to superior planes of production. 3- To check in each moment the productive process from the System of Pelletizing and Cooling. 4- To take the data of the process to analyze the productive result, taking measures to improve the quality of the foods. 5- To check the time of work of each System, to eliminating any abnormality that is presented in the smallest possible time. 6- To prepare other Operators with the help of the methodologies of Exploitation and Maintenance. 7- To eliminate the unnecessary Static loads in the different Equipments, lengthening their useful life and assuring the daily continuous production. 8- To incorporate to the mixture the necessary water for each it formulates, avoiding a great powder percent and productive waste, taking care of the technical state inside the Elevator (E1) and of the Press of the Pellet mill.
9- The construction of a Warehouse of Materials and balanced Foods, avoiding the contamination and increasing the time of Storage. 10-The construction of a laboratory for the analysis of the materials and of the balanced Pellets. 11-To maintain and fulfill the Methodology proposed important factor in assuring the quality of the continuous Production, to be more efficient and to increase the useful life of the Industrial Equipments.
Conclusions: 1-We lengthens the useful life span of the industrial Equipments, eliminating the Industrial problems in the appropriate moment. 2- Saving of imports for the concept of Spare parts. 3- The quality of the balanced Feed rises, obtaining a smaller percent of Powder and Productive waste. 4- We improve the efficiency of the productive Process. 5-The technical Level rises, increasing the experience of the Operators considerably, the most important factor in the productive process.