Chapters 1 & 2 Review
Question: Why is it important to study history? Please provide three reasons.
Answer: • To learn from the past • To not repeat mistakes • To learn about other cultures, religions, backgrounds, etc. • Because history can be fun • To learn interesting stories
Question: What is a civilization? Provide one example of an early civilization and explain why it is considered that.
Answer: Civilization- An advanced culture in which people have developed cities, science, and industries. Examples & Evidence: Mayas-astronomy, roads, pyramids Aztecs-Tenochtitlan (well-engineered city), military powerhouse Incas- quipus (system of record keeping), terraces, basic military
The First English Settlements Section 3.1
Exploring America During the 1500’s the Spanish ships controlled the seas. Here are a few important people that helped end the Spanish reign…
Exploring America 1588 – Sir Francis Drake (England) defeated the Spanish Armada
Where did the defeat of the Spanish Armada take place? Off the coast of Northern Ireland
IMPORTANT!!! Why is the defeat of the Spanish Armada so important? Opens seas for Europe to Explore America!!! People started to head out into the unknown.
Why would people leave Europe for unexplored land? • Potential wealth-fur, land, trade • Religious freedom-Separatists wanted to leave and form their own church • Adventure-see something new and exciting • New start-out of jail, debt, bad reputation, make a living at a new job • Power-to gain military or political power, but also to avoid the tyranny in Europe (kings)
Exploring America Sir Humphrey Gilbert – Claimed Newfoundland for Queen Elizabeth (England)
Sir Humphrey Gilbert cutting the first sod in Newfoundland in August 1583. Sir Humphrey Gilbert's British colony on Newfoundland failed partially because the colonists were more anxious to find silver mines than to plant crops.
ExploringAmerica Sir Walter Raleigh – Explored and reported positives of settling Roanoke Island (off coast of North Carolina) The capitol of North Carolina is now named after Sir Walter Raleigh
Exploring America Roanoke – 1585 The 1st attempt at an English colony in America. After a harsh winter the settlement was vacated.
Exploring America John White – Tried again two years later. After settling, White goes back to England for supplies and …. This is a 1585 map drawn by John White of the North Carolina area where Roanoke was settled.
Upon his return (3 years later after war with Spain) he found only the word CROATOAN and nothing else !!! (Which means the colony was a failure)
The Jamestown Settlement (1607)
The Virginia Company - Received a charter to settle in the area known as Virginia. A charter was permission from the king to start a settlement. This settlement was called Jamestown.
Jamestown was settled inside of the Chesapeake Bay in Virginia near present day Williamsburg, Virginia.
GOVERNMENT • 1608 - Capitan John Smith instilled military rule forcing colonists to work. Colony had success. • 1609 - Lord De La Warr continued it. He was a strict, poor leader (heard of Delaware?) • 1619 - Sir George Yeardly started a House of Burgesses because the men wanted a say in the government. • After about 12 years the colony started to succeed.
OBSTACLES NATIVE AMERICANS – Violence came when the English settled the good land What challenges did the colonists face? WEATHER – Harsh winters forced colonists to feed from animals they didn’t want to lose
OBSTACLES DISEASE – Malnourishment, new climate (swamp) and close quarters increased sickness GOVERNMENT – Early lack of leadership allowed settlers to search for gold instead of growing crops
What helped Jamestown SURVIVE? NATIVE AMERICANS: The Powhatan Tribe helped them gain the food they needed to survive. THE COLONY’S STRUCTURE: fort-like to keep Native Americans out.
What helped Jamestown survive? TOBACCO: John Rolfe learned to grow a less bitter kind, giving them a profitable crop. It was sold back in England.
What helped Jamestown survive? REINFORCEMENTS : Many more came to settle than were dying, especially women. • Year Arrive • 1619 - - - • 1620 100 (est) • 1621 1,051 • 1624 4,000 Population 1,000 866 843 1,277
Pocahontas Agonquin Indian Powhatan Tribe Father was Chief Powhatan She converted to Christianity and went by the name of Rebecca She married John Rolfe She died in 1617 at the age of 22 This is an original engraving by Simon van de Passe, from which an oil painting was later made. This is the only surviving portrait made during her lifetime, published in 1616. Therefore, it is the most accurate.
Pocahontas Recreated Powhatan village at the Jamestown Settlement Some say this painting of Pocahontas and her son Thomas, which has been preserved for centuries, is the most accurate depiction of her.
The final years of Jamestown… • Africans were brought to Jamestown as laborers, not slaves (but against their will) • In 1624, King James cancelled the charter and took control of the colony.
Did you know??? In 1607, about the same time as the Jamestown colonization, a group of English colonists attempted to establish a colony in the Northern Virginia territory. The colony, a fort named Fort St. George, was located in present day Maine and was named Popham after its leader George Popham. It lasted for approximately a year before the discouraged settlers returned to England.
Plymouth Colony • 1620 - • More colonists headed for Virginia but landed in Plymouth instead. They were out of supplies so they decided to stay.
Plymouth Colony • Most believe religious differences led to the Pilgrims establishing the colony of Plymouth. • However, only about 1/3 of them were actually Pilgrims (religious journey) The Pilgrims were Separatists-people who left the English Church.
The Mayflower Compact • Created to establish order, all agreed to follow the rules • All had a say in the rules (majority rule)
The Mayflower Compact • Loyalty to the King • Contract was for the general good of the colony
The Mayflower Compact Used later as a guide for the Constitution (formal plan of Government) in the United States
Local Indians, Squanto and Samoset helped the colonists farm and hunt. • The colonists invited the Native Americans to feast with them the following fall. Thanksgiving! • FYI- this had been done between many Native Americans and colonists before.
Recap of the first English Colonies • Roanoke- 1st attempt at an English colony in America. Failure and mystery • Jamestown-1st successful English colony (in Virginia) • Plymouth-2nd successful English colony (in New England)
Warm-upQuestion: Why would people leave Europe for unexplored land?
Answer:Potential wealth-fur, land, tradeReligious freedom-Separatists wanted to leave and form their own churchAdventure-see something new and excitingNew start-out of jail, debt, bad reputationPower-military or political
The New England Colonies Section 3.2
How did the New England Colonies form? Originally there was Plymouth, this colony later merged with M.B.C. to become Massachusetts (Pilgrims and Puritans lived together) Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630)-John Winthrop led the Puritans to Boston to establish a Christian community. (They were still part of the Church of England, unlike the Pilgrims.) They set up a basic representative govt. but didn’t accept other religions. Disagreements about religion led to the founding of other New England colonies
New Hampshire • New Hampshire (1638)-was founded by John Wheelwright when he was forced to leave M.B.C. Mostly for religious freedom. • Wheelwright was a Puritan minster who got kicked out of M.B.C. for defending Anne Hutchinson • Exports-Furs, Cattle & Ships
Connecticut • Connecticut(1636)-Thomas Hooker led a group to this area. • Religious and political freedom. • They wrote the first American Constitution. (F.O.C.) • Exports-Iron, Cattle, Grain & Ships
Rhode Island • Rhode Island (1636)-Roger Williams started this colony for religious freedom. • Anne Hutchinson tested the religious and female boundaries. Forced to leave M.B.C. She started her own settlement-became part of Rhode Island. • Exports-Iron & Rum
Native American Relations • Native Americans had good and bad interactions with the colonists. • King Philip’s War was fought between the Puritans and the Native Americans (to stop European expansion.) • Metacom (called King Phillip by the Europeans)led the confederation of indigenous peoples that included the Wampanoag and Narraganset tribes. • It was one of the most costly wars of resistance in New England history.
Warm UpQuestion: What was the main reason why the New England colonies formed?