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Unit 5 Section A The Battle Against AIDS
Class Schedule Lead-in New Words and Expressions Text Structure Writing Fun Time
Lead In Background Information Pre-reading Activities
AIDS AIDS, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, is a disease which destroys the natural method the body uses to protect against other diseases. It is a disease caused by the HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), but AIDS is different from HIV in that the former usually causes death while HIV may lead to AIDS. HIV is spread in three ways: (1) contact with infected blood; (2) sex; (3) mother-to-child. AIDS usually develops in four stages: (1) In the first stage, there is only infection by HIV and antibody (抗体) production. (2) In the second stage, the lymph nodes (淋巴结) enlarge (肿大).
AIDS (3) In the third stage, an infected person may begin to have such signs (症状) as tiredness, fever, and night sweats. (4) In the last stage, AIDS is diagnosed when a person develops certain uncommon, life-threatening illnesses, for example Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia(卡氏肺囊虫肺炎 ). AIDS was first conclusively identified in the United States in 1981, when 189 cases were reported to the Centers for Disease Control. Within a decade the disease had spread to virtually all populated areas of the world. In the United States alone there are about 65,000 new cases every year. The origin of the AIDS virus is uncertain? But it may have originated in Central Africa.
HIV HIV is the human immunodeficiency virus. This is the virus that spreads through contact with infected blood, infected sexual partners or within the womb of an infected pregnant mother. After infecting a person, HIV can remain hidden in the body for long and different periods of time until it becomes active and develops into AIDS for which no known cure exists. The virus spreads very fast once contact has been made with an infected source.
Pre-reading Activities 1. Have you read any article about AIDS? Could you say something about it? 2. Can you draw the picture of the HIV virus? 3.Do you know how many people are infected with AIDS in world? How many in china?
Words & Expressions Sentence Analysis Words and Phrases
Words and Phrases acquire: vt. to gain or come into possession esp. by one’s own work, skill, action, often over a long period of time e.g.: She acquired knowledge of the English by careful study. I managed to acquire two tickets for the concert. syn. earn, gain, obtain, secure n. acquisition
Words and Phrases constitute: vt. 1) make up; form a whole e.g.: 1.Seven days constitute a week. 2.Twelve scientists constituted a research group to study air pollution. 3.The committee is constituted of members of all three parties. 2) establish e.g.: The committee had been improperly constituted, and therefore had to legal power.
Words and Phrases constitute: vt. n.constitution 宪法；构成；体系 syn.compose, consist, set up. comprise. organize antonym: dissolve
Words and Phrases alarm: n. 1) sudden fear or worry; e.g.: He jumped up in alarm. 2) a warning of danger e.g.: Where’s the fire alarm? v. cause sudden fear and worry e.g.: 1.Alarmed by the noise, the birds flew away. 2. Everybody was alarmed at the news that a war might break out. syn.disturb, frighten, shock
Words and Phrases implement: vt.put into practice: carry out e.g.:1.The government is implementing a program of reform. 2. Money is needed to implement our child-care programs. n.a tool or instrument e.g.:farming/gardening implements
Words and Phrases emerge: vi. come or appear; become known e.g.:1.Eventually the truth of the matter emerged from the fact. 2. Many ideas are likely to emerge after such an interesting finding. 3. Vietnam has emerged as the world's third biggest rice trader. n. emergence 浮现，暴露 emergency 紧急情况 syn. appear, come out
Words and Phrases combat: vt. fight against; e.g.: 1.The new government promised to take measures to combat crime. 2.The police are now using computers to help combat crime. n. a struggle between two sides, ideas, etc.e.g.: 1.He took part in a street combat in which two people were killed. 2.These troops have little experience of actual combat. syn. battle, fight, war, campaign
Words and Phrases literacy: ability to read and write e.g. He has a low literacy rate adj. literate antonym: illiterate compare: literate: 有读写能力的 literal：照字面意思的 literally：逐字地，照原文 literature：文学：文献，图书资料 literary: 文学的
Words and Phrases rate: n.speed, proportion 受教育比例高 • a highrateof literacy 汇率 2) therateof exchange 结婚率低 3) a low marriagerate 离婚率高 4)a high divorcerate 高利率 5)high interestrates
Words and Phrases illustrate: vt. add pictures to (sth. written); show the meaning of (sth.) by giving pictures or examples e.g.: 1.The diagram will illustrate what I meant. 2. If you illustrate the book it will be more expensive. 3. The case illustrates that women can do much better than men in some fields. 4. Let me give another example to illustrate this difficult point. n. illustration
Words and Phrases relate: 1) say or tell; give an account e.g.: 1.After seeing the film, the student was able to relate every point in English. 2.The traveler related his journey with joy. 3.She related to them how it happened. 2) see or show a joining between e.g.:1.It’s difficult to relate cause with effect in this case. 2. I can’t relate what he does to what he says syn: narrate, explain, depict
Words and Phrases risk: n.danger v.place in danger; take the chance of [C] risk doing sth. or risk sth. / n. at the risk of: taking the risk of; running the risk of at risk:in danger of
Words and Phrases Fill in the blanks with “risk”, “at the risk of” or “at risk”. • Pets are posing new_____ . risks • Passengers sit still so long they____ developing health • problems. risk • Throughout most of human life, people in many places • have been ______ from natural disasters like floods, • earthquakes and droughts. Industrial development • changes the environment in ways which create more • ____ of worse natural disasters. at risk risks 4) He rescued the little girl ___________ his life. at the risk of
Words and Phrases emphasize: vt.stress sth. is very important e.g.: 1. He emphasized the importance of careful driving/that careful driving was important. 2. The official emphasized that his government would implement the program. syn:stress, accentuate n.emphasis
Words and Phrases threaten: v. be a warning that one is going to hurt, punish, etc.; give warning of (sth. bad) e.g.: 1. If you threaten me or use any force, I shall inform the police. 2.The strikers were threatened with dismissal if they did not return to work. threat: n threatening: a.
Words and Phrases distract sb. from sth.:take one's attention from sth.e.g.: 1.Don't let social activities distract you from your study. 2. The film managed to distracted me from these problems for a while. 3. She was distracted (from her work) by the noise outside. n.distraction
Sentence Analysis 1. Despite such alarming numbers, the federal and state governments have been slow in implementing programs to stop the spread of AIDS. (Line 8) ①despite prep.: in spite of, without being affected by 尽 管；不管；不顾; 在此句中表示让步关系。用法为： despite+n./ doing sth. 其他表示转折和让步意义的词还有： though, although, even though, even, if, unless, instead of, however及whatever之类引导的让步状语从句。 • be slow in doing sth.: do sth. slowly
Sentence Analysis despite+n./ doing sth. 1）Despiteowning great wealth, he always remained a man of simple tastes. 尽管有钱，他仍然过着普通人的生活。 2）My mother required me to remain modest despite my achievementsin this mid-term exam. 尽管我在这次期中考试取得不错成绩，我母亲要求我仍然要保持谦虚。 3）Despite being tired, some students went on studying until late at night. 尽管很累了，一些学生仍然继续学习直到深夜。 4） Despite the fact thatshe never stays up late to study, she almost always makes top scores on the exams. 令人吃惊的是，尽管她从不熬夜学习，但几乎 总是在考试中得第一名。
Sentence Analysis be slow in doing sth.: do sth. slowly 1）由于严重的财政问题，省政府儿童保健的 项目实施缓慢。 The provincial government was slow in implementing the child-care programs because of serious financial problems. 2）父亲人老了，反应也慢了。 My father is getting on in years and he is slow in reaction.
Sentence Analysis 1. Despite such alarming numbers, the federal and state governments have been slow in implementing programs to stop the spread of AIDS. (Line 8) 尽管数目大得惊人，但各州和联邦政府在实施防止艾滋病蔓延的计划方面行动迟缓。
Sentence Analysis 2. Likemany local organizations, this organization suffersfroma lack of money, forcing it to use its resources creatively.(Line 12) 句中forcing 为现在分词短语引导的伴随状语，说明在缺乏资 金的情况下该组织如何解决问题。 ①like: prep. 引导的短语在句中作状语，具有准并列功能。意 为“像······”，“和······一样”。 ②suffer from: be badly influenced by受······之苦/折磨， 因······而不舒服
Sentence Analysis ①like: prep. 引起的短语在句中作状语，具有准并列功能。意 为“像”，“和······一样”。 1) 像其他致命的癌症一样，艾滋病导致了惊 人数量的死亡。 Like other deadly cancers, AIDS has led to an alarming number of deaths. 2) 像成千上万的年轻人一样，他对电脑游 戏很着迷。 Like thousands of young people, he is crazy about computer games.
Sentence Analysis ②suffer from: be badly influenced by受······之苦/折磨， 因······而不舒服 Complete the following sentences. 1)He was diagnosed ____________________. (染上了艾滋病) as suffering from AIDS 2) His schoolwork _______________________________. (受到他所有社会活动的严重影响) suffered from all his social activities 3) Children in the flood-stricken area ____________ __________.(严重营养不良) suffered from ill nutrition
Sentence Analysis 2. Likemany local organizations, this organization suffers froma lack of money, forcing it to use its resources creatively.(Line 12) 和许多地方性组织一样，该组织缺乏资金，这迫使它创造性地使用其资源。
Sentence Analysis 3. As a result, such books actually have more effect in the communities where they are used than government publications, which cost thousands of dollars more to produce. (Line 38) ① 本句从句套从句。“where they are used…”为定语从句修饰 communities; 而其中which 又引导非限定性定语从句 修饰government publication。 ②as a result:结果，因此。 在句中可独立作状语。也可用 “as a result of + sth./doing sth.”表结果。
Sentence Analysis 定语从句 (attributive clause) • 用于修饰主句的名词（主语、宾语或表语）的从句，且其句子成分 • 为定语叫做定语从句。 2) 定语从句分为两类： 非限制性定语从句和限制性定语从句 注意： (1)非限制性定语从句用逗号与主句隔开。不能用that替换引导词which; (2)指代人时，从句可由关系代词who, whom, whose引导; (3)指代物时，可由关系代词which引导； (4)指代人或物时，由that引导； (5)由as, which引导的非限定性定语从句，as 和 which可代整个主句， 相当于and this或and that。As一般放在句首，which在句中。 e.g. 1) As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health. 2) The sun heats the earth, which is very important to us.
Sentence Analysis • The residents, ____ had been damaged by the flood, were given • help by the Red Cross. • A) all their homes B) all whose homes • C) all of whose homes D) all of their homes 2) Alice received an invitation from her boss, ___came as a surprise. A) itB) that C) whichD) he 3) I’ll never forget the years ____ I lived in the country with the farmers_____had a great effect on my life. A) that , which B) when , which C) which , that D) when , who 4) As ___ announced in today's papers, the Shanghai Export Commodities Fair is also open on Sundays. A) being B) is C) to be D) been 5) Tell me all ________ you know. A) that B) what C) which D) when
Sentence Analysis ②as a result:结果，因此。在句中可独立作状语。也可用 “as a result of + sth./doing sth.”表结果。 Rewrite the following sentences with the phrase “as a result of”. 1) The girl did not work hard enough. As a result, she failed the exam. The girl failed the exam as a result of not working hard enough. 2) He suffered from the flu recently. As a result, he had to be away from school for several weeks. He had to be away from school for several weeks as a result of suffering from the flu recently.
Sentence Analysis 3. As a result, such books actually have more effect in the communities where they are used than government publications, which cost thousands of dollars more to produce. (Line 38) 这样一来，这些书在使用它们的社区里所产生的影响要比政府出版的书籍大，而政府出版的书籍成本要高出数千美元。
Sentence Analysis 4. They also play a vital role in helping parents understand the types of peer pressure their children experience. (Line 45) ①句中 “their children experience”是省略了 which或 that 的定语从句修饰 peer pressure。 ②play a role in: 在······中起作用;常在role前加入修饰词，构成 “play a/an leading/ important/ significant role”
Sentence Analysis ②play a role in: 在······中起作用;常在 role 前加入修饰词，用作 “play a/an leading/ important/ significant role” 1）有效管理在公司的经营中起着重要作用。 Effective management plays an important role in the running of a company. 2）他在这次教学改革的实施中起着领导作用。 He played a leading role in carrying out this teaching reform.
Sentence Analysis 4. They also play a vital role in helping parents understand the types of peer pressure their children experience. (Line 45) 他们在帮助父母亲理解孩子们所经受的各种来自于同龄人的压力方面也起着重要作用。
Sentence Analysis 5. The stylists also emphasize that everyone is at risk and that all of us have a right to protect ourselves — regardless of marriage status. (Line 52) 此句中谓语动词emphasize后连续接两个由that引导的宾语从 句，说明存在的危险以及我们有保护自己的权利。 ①be at risk: be in danger冒风险，有危险 ②regardless of: paying no attention to sb./sth. ; in spite of不顾
Sentence Analysis ①be at risk: be in danger冒风险，有危险 1）经济将进一步滑坡，使更多的人遭受失业的危险。 The economy will fall further, putting more jobs at risk. 2）如果那些处于危险中的人能及时请医生诊视， 心脏病是可以避免的。 Heart disease can be avoided if people at risk are timely diagnosed. risk一词搭配词组: at the risk of (doing sth.)冒······的危险 run the risk of (doing sth.)做危险的事 take a risk冒险
Sentence Analysis ②regardless of: paying no attention to sb./sth. ; in spite of不顾 Complete the following sentences. • 尽管以前我们失败过，但仍要坚持下去。 • We will persevere ______________________. regardless of past failures 2) 不论民族或信仰，每个人都有追求自己事业的权利， Everyone has the right to pursue his career, __________________________. regardless of his race or creed 3) 不论价钱多少，她学习需要的任何东西她父母都给她买了。 Her parents bought her whatever she needed for her study, _______________________. regardless of the expenses
Sentence Analysis 5. The stylists also emphasize that everyone is at risk and that all of us have a right to protect ourselves — regardless of marriage status. (Line 52) 发型设计师们也强调每个人都存在着危险，所以我们每个人都有权保护自己——不管婚姻状况如何。
Sentence Analysis 6. These lessons are not the only solutions to the crisis but untilthere is a cure for AIDS, education represents the only safe measure to guard against the virus. (Line 54) ①solution to sth.: n. answer to sth.问题的答案，解决问题的方 法 名词＋介词 to 的固定搭配: ②guard against: protect against预防，防止
Sentence Analysis ①solution: n. answer to sth.问题的答案，解决问题的方法 • 他花了三天时间才解出这道数学难题。 It took him three days to work out a solution to the mathematics problem. 2）习题答案见书后。 The solutions to the questions are at the back of the book.
Sentence Analysis ②guard against: protect against预防，防止 • Brush your teeth regularly to guard against tooth decay. 经常刷牙，预防龋齿。 2) Be careful to guard against spreading infections like SARS when eating outside. 在外面吃饭时，要小心预防像“非典” 这样的传染病。 3) This is an open house and there is little way to guard against strangers. 这是一幢开放式的房子，很难防范陌生人的进入。
Sentence Analysis 6. These lessons are not the only solutions to the crisis but until there is a cure for AIDS, education represents the only safe measure to guard against the virus. (Line 54) 这些经验不是解决艾滋病危机的惟一方法，但在找到治疗艾滋病的方法之前，教育不失为预防感染艾滋病毒的惟一安全措施。
Sentence Analysis 7.We simply cannotlet people continue to die because we don’t feel comfortable talking about AIDS. (Line 60) ① “let”在此为使役动词，后接动词原型 let sb. do sth.:让某人做某事 e.g.We must not let cultural, racial, or social barriers distract us from the job that must be done. (Line 57) ②feel comfortable doing sth./ with sth.: feel good about doing sth. 感到满意、舒服
Sentence Analysis ① “let”在此为使役动词，后接动词原型 let sb. do sth.:让某人做某事 Complete the following sentences. • No one is willing to ______________________________. • 没有人会愿意让自己的生活受命运主宰。 let his life be controlled by destiny let AIDS take 2) We won’t stand by and ____________ _________________. 我们不会袖手旁观， 让艾滋病轻易夺去人们的生命。 people’s lives easily