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ONCE MORE ABOUT ANOMALIES PHYSICS Vladimir A. Pinchuk. Baltic State Technical University Saint-Petersburg, Russia. SOME REFERENCES.

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Baltic State Technical University

Saint-Petersburg, Russia

some references
  • Pintchuk V.A. “The nature and energy sources of the Ball Lightning”// Proceedings of 24th International Electric Propulsion Conference, IEPC-95-233, Moscow, Russia, September 19-23, 1995. P. 1-11.
  • Pinchuk V.A. “Physical basis of cold fusion and prospects of its application as engine power”// Proceedings of the 3rd International conference on new energy systems & conversions, Kazan. Russia. 1997. September 8-13. P. 189-192.
  • Pinchuk V.A. “The phenomenon of Ball Lightning and Cold Nuclear Synthesis”// Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on energy, environment & economic, Vol. 2, Kazan, Russia, 1998. P. 199-213.
  • Pinchuk V.A. “The phenomenon of Ball Lightning and Cold Synthesis”. News of Institutes of Higher Education (Power problems). 1999. № 3-4. P. 49-64 (only in Russian).
  • Pinchuk V.A. “Reality and the nature of cold nuclear synthesis are justified by the ball lightning existence”// Proceedings of the 4th International conference on new energy systems & conversions, – Osaka. Japan. Osaka Univ., 1999. P. 361-368.
  • Pinchuk V.A “The nature of cold nuclear synthesis and problems of ensuring its application prospects in space technology”// All-Russian electro-technical congress with international participation “On centuries boundary: results and trends” (WELC-99). Theses. Vol. 3. Moscow. Russia. 1999. P. 730-732.
  • V.A. Pinchuk. “The common techniques features and prospects of cold nuclear synthesis assimilation to needs of power engineering”// Proceedings of the 5th International conference on new energy systems & conversions. Shanghai. P.R. China. 2001. P. 369-374.
  • Pinchuk V.A. “The cold nuclear synthesis as energy source: the physical nature and practical assimilation ways” // The International Conference “Space challenge in 21st century” : Russia, Moscow-Kaluga. September 15-19, 2003: Extended abstracts – Moscow. Russia. 2003. P. 98-99 (only in Russian)
common state of nuclear synthesis problem
Common state of nuclear synthesis problem
  • As for now, no practical using methods of nuclear synthesis energy exist. Traditionally untwisted ways of searching for methods to solve this problem are oriented as a whole onto elaboration of technologies for production and following keeping (over time period enough for reaction completion) of material formations with temperatures T~108-109 K, that are both the most favourable for different plasma instabilities evolution and so difficult for realization. The pessimism in assessments of real possibilities to solve the nuclear synthesis problem by this way, being sensed at the last time, is best to characterize
  • the one’s common prospects.
cold nuclear synthesis problem
Cold nuclear synthesis problem
  • The experimental realizations of cold nuclear synthesis are known. The ones are characterized however by too low (under practical power viewpoint) densities of given out energy. As it takes place, a possibility to increase CNS power-output up to now has not been elucidated yet, first of all because of both the principal troubles to interpret the nature of CNS and to specify necessary conditions to realize the one (the satisfactory interpretation of CNS observations within the generally accepted physical concepts is presented impossible).
  • The problem of CNS nature substantiation is so especially significant.
the attack method
The Attack Method
  • Assessing prospects for views formulation of CNS nature first of all the attention was paid to the presence in the reaction zone of uncompensated electric charge (excess).
  • The hypothesis has been proposed that the observed CNS realizations could be substantiated ….
  • ….by existing of traditionally not accounted (earlier unknown) peculiarity of internal energy equilibrium conditions - IEEC (between energy states of different nature) that manifests itself in medium formations with uncompensated electric charge and are responsiblefor CNS realization in that number[1]
  • [1]Let’s point out that within of the traditional (and predominant up to present) views the inner energy equilibrium conditions don’t depend on whether uncompensated electric charge is kept or is not kept in the medium composition.
the first steps
  • The trustworthiness of the being formulated hypothesis was being estimated without respect to mechanism of AQN-formations origin (as being of one’s own scientific interest). The consideration was being done within the framework of thermodynamic method. When it was done the medium was considered as thermodynamically opened system with variable number of particles and corresponding to three-liquid plasma model.
  • The ionization degree
  • and relative content of the uncompensated electronic component
  • were used as the state parameters.
It was exposed so that the internal ionizing equilibrium conditions of AQN-formation are determined by the equation

that, with neglect of a negligibly small components, can be brought to anyone from


Here: V – ionization potential;Ω - the potential of the space, the value of which can be estimate as the minimum work done by the external influence on charge injection into the AQN-formation’s volume

General character of internal the energy equilibrium conditions (IEEC)

In an analogous way the general character of the internal energy equilibrium conditions are revealed:

For the reaction of type A+B<=>AB

activation energy of the association reaction

common ieec peculiarities
  • The relationships correspond to the content of operating masses law and really display early unknown peculiarities, manifesting essentially by added term

in the exponent index

common ieec peculiarities1

In context of the revealed IEEC it turns out that among other things the such a parameter as traditionally evaluated temperature T being applied to localized formations with uncompensated charge (“aquasi-neutral” or AQN – formations) directly determines the equilibrium populations only of mechanical energy states.

common ieec peculiarities2

If within the limits of traditional approaches

and with regard to IEEC - the excitation temperature of chemical bonds and electron energy states of level of AQN-medium, then its relationship with - the excitation temperature of mechanical (translational, oscillatory and rotational) energy states (below referred as translational) is determined by

common ieec peculiarities3

In other words, as it was supposed according IEEC the injection of excess charge into the medium really causes deformation of the energy state population distribution function to the form


( ) if .

Or even

under .

significant remark
Significant remark:

An AQN-foundation is thermodynamically opened system that is characterized first of all with being essentially disturbed one’s equilibrium.

that is the revealed ieec
That is ….the revealed IEEC
  • must be considered first of all no as postulate directly giving proof of AQN-foundation characteristics
  • but, rather,only as the restrictions complex that substantiates both a common character and exciting necessity of relaxation in AQN-medium (right away since origin moment) towards equilibrium taking into account of surplus electric charge presence in the one’s composition.
ieec as basis to substantiated cns
IEEC as Basis to substantiated CNS
  • As applied to the target directionality of the work, the revealed peculiarities (regularities) of equilibrium conditions are so primarily interest as the restrictions complex onto both the compound and the specificity of relaxation processes of AQN-formations being formed by external actions.
  • The revealed peculiarities (regularities), in this connection, are evidence above all for the existence of traditionally not be taken into account earlier (unknown) channel of control over material media states wherein electric charge plays the role of controlling actions factor upon the medium (charge-up control channel).

We should particularly concentrate our attention on the fact that approaching of AQN-systems towards the internal energy equilibrium conditions according to IEEC is realizing

in “up to down” direction.

importance of the noted becomes more apparent when it is taken into account
Importance of the noted becomes more apparent when it is taken into account,

that the realization probability of one or another reaction type (including the CNS reaction itself) in every particular moment of time at the stage of the system relaxation to the new quasi-stationary state (due to the changes of internal equilibrium conditions caused by the injection of excess electric charge by external factors) may be estimated according to the equation

i.e. as the difference between the excitation temperature of the corresponding to the relaxation reaction energy level and the translational temperature related to the excitation temperature itself.


In other words, if the AQN-formations is realized in the medium with low temperatures then initial levels of necessary stretch over negative region and then, in the course of relaxation, undergo discontinuity of the type ( ).

If electronic shell and nuclear in totality to consider as united, being energetically balanced system, that the last can be interpreted as an indirect indication onto development possibility under the relaxation an instability of the AQN-medium’s atom-molecular structure the CNS-realization conditions in that number.


It is important to note that control actions onto medium by the charge factor in common are realized under conditions of charge instabilities, being excited, for example, by acoustic or electrical influences upon medium.

Call attention to the fact that in these conditions not only positive but and negative activation energy correction factors ( ) are being formed.

Under this conditions the population of electron energy states corresponding to standard distribution becomes re-exciting one.

Being sprang up so misbalance over the populations distribution must be suppressed by energy (electrons) flow from out shell of medium. The one substantiates the phenomenon of k - or e - capture (corresponding to arising of neutrons and within framework of the common dynamic circle AQN-systems formation).

So it is substantiated at the present that phenomenon of k- or e-capture is needed step of conditions forming for cold nuclear synthesis realization1).

1) S. V. Tsivinski. “About principally new possibility to realize nuclear synthesis of deuterium, tritium and helium from hydrogen atoms”. Vestnik of Russian Academia of Natural Sciences. Physics. N3. 2002. P. 43-45. (only in Russian).


The revealed conditions of internal energy equilibrium substantiate an existence of traditionally not accounted (earlier unknown) control channel over material media states

(charge-up control channel)

where the electric charge plays a role of controlling influences factor.

Of the one, which testifies to real prospects of searching for ways of

CNS assimilation[1].

However common peculiarities of the channel using (and as applied to assimilation CNS problem in that number) up to now is not cleared yet.

  • [1] The marked bears essentially witness to the possibilities of charge-up channel using for exiting of wide reactions spectrum with high levels of potential activation barrier (the nuclear synthesis reactions in that number) in media with differences of both compound and phase state.
introduce clarity into conditions of charge up control channel using
Introduce clarity into conditions of charge-up control channel using..
  • To give a more precise definition about needed conditions for effective using of charge-up control channel, the plasma’s quasi-equilibrium parameters (in both quasi- and aquai-neutral states, all others things being equal) werebeing estimated.
  • The estimation was being done as applied to conditions in channel of Hall’s MGD Generator
the results were being analyzed under assumption that
The results were being analyzed under assumption that
  • the high performanceof charge-up channel usingcan be principally ensuredonly in the temperatures range where, depending on there is or there isn’t uncompensated charge in the media composition,differences between estimations of media’s quasi-equilibrium ionization characteristics are revealed.
it is determined in this connection
It is determined in this connection
  • that significant differences of quasi-equilibrium ionization parameters of AQN formations relative to its analogues but of quasi-neutral medium are principally revealed only in field of relative lowtemperatures.
in other words
In other words
  • the possibilities to use the charge-up channel for efficient controlling over material media states are realized only inside the range of relatively low temperatures.
  • Being revealed so limitations carry a principal character and, in the framework of the developed views, can be considered as one of the significant peculiarities of ways searching of cold nuclear assimilation as a whole.

In addition the real perspectives to make more exact, on basis of the revealed regularity, the views of some different key, but up to now not solved yet, physics problems were being estimated.

  • The Ball Lightning;
  • Some aspects of Burning theory;
  • Energy feeding mechanism Substantiation of high frequency instability (HFI) in chambers of heat engines
  • were being examined
  • in that number

As for Ball Lightning,

  • In common:
  • BL’s sphericity;
  • Radiation capacity;
  • Energy feeding source;
  • BL’s accumulation channels and resources of energy;
  • Multi-facing problem
  • are substantiated
  • in this fashion
the needed numerical estimations
The needed numerical estimations

to substantiate

BL’s sphericity

  • had been received
it was substantiated that bl s energy resources is worthwhile to carry out each among components
It was substantiated that BL’s energy resources is worthwhile to carry out each among components:
  • radiation flow;
  • energy, accumulated by BL as capasitor;

- the energy, accumulated by the BL-medium due to the distribution function deformation of chemical bonds and electron energy states populatons.

energy feding mechanisms
Energy feding mechanisms:
  • Convection heat exchange;
  • Mass exchange mechanism.
  • Multi- facing problem
  • It would be prudent to wait that the quasi-stationary characteristics of BL will be different depending of whether one or other from the constituents is predominant in energy transfer mechanism from environment to the BL
bl s energy resours multi facing
Bl’s energy resours & multi-facing

Convection heat exchange

Mass exchange mechanism

in the framework of burning mechanism
In the framework of burning mechanism
  • It is substantiated that account of revealed inner energy equilibrium conditions opens really new possibilities for ideas deepening about both exothermic reactions excitation mechanism on burning and ensuring conditions of burning process steadinessas a whole.

High frequency instability (HFI) in chambers of heat engine up to now has not received needed comprehension yet (energy feeding mechanism especially)

  • Attention was drawn to he fact that HFI is accompanied with progress of instabilities in charge distribution over volume displaying first of all by forming in burning product medium of macroscopic formations with surplus electric charge•
  • • Pinchuk V.A. “Low-Temperature Plasma to External Acoustic Distturbances” Journal of Engineering Physics Thermodynamics (JEPTER). Vol. 67. N. 1-2. 1994. P. 781-784

It is felt that relaxation in connection with natural reduction of reactions’ activation barrier will be accompanied by intensification in the AQN-formations medium of wide spectrum of endothermic reactions and, first of all, of dissociation reactions (for example H2O<—>HO+H and/or CO2 <—>co+O)Natural increase of local levels of both molar concentrations and medium’s pressure will ensure, in that case, steady forming of positive reverse connection being directed onto intensification of initial inner-chamber instabilities.

energy feeding scheme of inner chamber s hfi
Energy feeding Scheme of inner chamber’s HFI

High Frequence






  • Traditionally not accounted regularity (IEEC) establishingdependence of inner energy equilibrium conditions(between energy states with different physical nature) on presence or absence in media composition of surplus electric chargehas been confirmed
  • The role of IEEC as a physics basis of anomalies row of natural and/or artificial origin has been substantiated
  • The fundamental character of IEEC and expediency to take into account the one when solving of wide row of sciences and applied problemshas been displayed