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German Grammar Lectures. Lecture 8: Prepositions and Conjunctions Designed by Paul Joyce University of Portsmouth E-Mail: Paul.Joyce@port.ac.uk. 8.1 What is a preposition?. A preposition is a word that links a noun or pronoun to other words. It can indicate:

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german grammar lectures
German Grammar Lectures

Lecture 8:

Prepositions and Conjunctions

Designed by Paul Joyce

University of Portsmouth

E-Mail: Paul.Joyce@port.ac.uk

8 1 what is a preposition
8.1 What is a preposition?
  • A preposition is a word that links a noun or pronoun to other words. It can indicate:
  • Direction: “He’s going to the shops.”
  • Location: “It’s in the box.”
  • Time: “I’ll see you after the lesson.”
  • Possession: “The government of Italy”
8 2 german prepositions
8.2 German prepositions
  • German prepositions ‘take’ a specific case.

1) Accusative case

2) Dative case

3) Genitive case

  • German prepositions do not take the nominative case
  • The logic behind which preposition takes which case has little to do with the logic of the cases of objects discussed in Lecture 3.
8 3 accusative prepositions
bis  until, up to, as far as

durch  through

für  for

gegen  against, into, towards

ohne  without

per / pro  per

um  round; about

wider  against

8.3 Accusative prepositions
8 4 accusative prepositions examples
8.4 Accusative prepositions: examples
  • Wir standen umden Teich. (= We were standing aroundthe lake.)
  • Das tat er ohnemein Wissen. (= He did that withoutmy knowledge.)
  • Sie ging durchdie ganze Stadt. (= She walked throughthe whole town.)
  • Nicht schlecht für einen alten Mann! (= Not bad foran old man!)
8 5 accusative prepositions examples 2
8.5 Accusative prepositions: examples (2)
  • Ich bin bis nächsten Montag im Urlaub. (= I’m on holiday untilnext Monday.)
  • Das kostet zwanzig Euro pro Person. (= It costs twenty euros perperson.)
  • Er schaffte es gegen alle Erwartungen. (= He managed it againstall expectations.)
  • Sie handeln wider besseres Wissen. (= They’re acting againsttheir better judgement.)
8 6 bis another preposition
8.6 Bis + another preposition
  • Careful! The preposition bis is often used in combination with other prepositions.
  • Wir fuhren bis an die Grenze. (= We drove up to the border.)
  • Auf Wiedersehen bis zum nächsten Mal! (= Goodbye until the next time!)
  • Es gab Spannung bis zur letzten Sekunde. (= There was excitement right up to the final second.)
8 7 hinauf herunter
8.7 hinauf- & herunter-
  • Directional adverbs formed from hin- and her- prepositions also take the accusative.
  • Du steigst den Berg hinauf. (= You are climbing up the mountain.)
  • Wir kamen die Treppe herunter. (= We came down the stairs.)
  • Sie tanzte die ganze Nacht hindurch. (= She danced all through the night.)
8 8 dative prepositions
aus  out of, from

außer  except

bei  by; at

gegenüber  opposite

mit  with

nach  after; towards

seit  since

von  from

zu  to

8.8 Dative Prepositions
8 9 dative prepositions examples 1
8.9 Dative prepositions: examples (1)
  • Sonja kam aus diesem Gebäude. (= Sonja came out of this building.)
  • Es gab keine Probleme außerdem Namen. (= There were no problems apart from the name.)
  • Die Kinder wohnen bei ihrer Tante. (= The children are living at their aunt’s.)
  • Er schreibt mit einem Filzstift. (= He writes with a felt-tip pen.)
8 10 dative prepositions examples 2
8.10 Dative prepositions: examples (2)
  • Nach diesem Winter bist du wieder da. (= You’ll be back again after this winter.)
  • Wir warten seit einer halben Stunde. (= We’ve been waiting for half an hour.)
  • Die Blätter fallen vonden Bäumen. (= The leaves are falling from the trees.)
  • Sven geht zu seinem Onkel. (= Sven is going to his uncle’s house.)
8 11 position of gegen ber
8.11 Position of gegenüber
  • Gegenüberfollows words denoting people:
  • Er fand es anderen Leuten gegenüber unfair (= He found this unfair towards other people.)
  • Gegenüberalways followsa pronoun:
  • Sie saß mir gegenüber. (=...sat opposite me)
  • BUTgegenüberprecedes most other words:
  • Die Schule ist gegenüberdemRathaus. (= The school is opposite the town hall.)
8 12 position of nach
8.12 Position of nach
  • Nachprecedes nouns when it means after or towards (i.e. the vast majority of the time):
  • - i.e. nachvier Uhr; er ging nach Italien
  • BUT when it means according to, nach can follow certain nouns (often in set phrases):
  • meiner Meinung nach(= in my opinion)
  • dem Bericht nach(= according to the report)
  • allem Anschein nach(= to all appearances)
8 13 other dative prepositions
ab  from

binnen  within

dank  thanks to

entgegen  contrary to

entsprechend*  in accordance with

gemäß*; zufolge* in accordance with

laut (according to)

zuliebe*  for the sake of

(* = preposition follows noun)

8.13 Other dative prepositions
8 14 dative prepositions examples 3
8.14 Dative prepositions: examples (3)
  • Er schaffte es dank meinem Einfluss. (= He managed it thanks to my influence.)
  • Entgegen allen Erwartungen (= Contrary to all expectations)
  • Ich tat es meinem Vater zuliebe. (= I did it for my father’s sake.)
  • Laut Berichten soll er gestorben sein. (= According to reports, he has died.)
8 15 quiz 1 which case endings
8.15 Quiz (1): which case endings?
  • Sie kehrte zu ihr___ Eltern zurück. (= She returned to her parents.)
  • Durch hart___ Arbeit erreichst du dein Ziel. (You’ll reach your goal through hard work.)
  • Ich wohne gegenüber d___ Krankenhaus. (= I live opposite the hospital.)
  • Er warf den Ball gegen d___ Mauer. (= He threw the ball against the wall.)
8 16 answers which case endings
8.16 Answers: which case endings?
  • Sie kehrte zu ihren Eltern zurück. (= She returned to her parents.)
  • Durch harte Arbeit erreichst du dein Ziel. (You’ll reach your goal through hard work.)
  • Ich wohne gegenüber dem Krankenhaus. (= I live opposite the hospital.)
  • Er warf den Ball gegen die Mauer. (= He threw the ball against the wall.)
8 17 dative or accusative prepositions
an  to; on

auf  on (top of)

entlang  along

hinter  behind

in  in; into

neben  next to

über  above; over

unter  below

vor  in front of

zwischen  between

8.17 Dative or accusative prepositions
8 18 dative or accusative prepositions
8.18 Dative or accusative prepositions
  • These prepositions take the accusative if they express motion, but the dative caseif they express the position of an object at rest.
  • Motion: “Er ging in jedes Zimmer hinein.”
  • Position: “Wir essen in diesem Zimmer.”
  • Motion: “Wir fahren an die Küste.”
  • Position: “Er wohnt an der Küste.”
8 19 dative or accusative prepositions
8.19 Dative or accusative prepositions
  • Motion: “Die Katze springt auf das Dach.”
  • Position: “Die Katze liegt auf dem Dach.”
  • Motion: “Wir gingen über die Straße.”
  • Position: “Das Bild hängt über dem Tisch.”
  • N.B.This rule is only true for these 10 prepositions ! Ausand zu always take the dative even when they express motion.
  • e.g. Wir gehen aus dem Haus / zum Arzt.”
8 20 prepositions quiz 2 which case
8.20 Prepositions quiz (2): which case?
  • Er sitzt zwischen sein___ Schwestern. (= He is sitting between his sisters.)
  • Er setzt sich zwischen sein___ Schwestern. (= He sits down between his sisters.)
  • Ich hänge das Bild an d___ Wand. (= I hang the picture on the wall.)
  • Das Bild hängt an d___ Wand. (= The picture is hanging on the wall.)
8 21 prepositions quiz 2 answers
8.21 Prepositions quiz (2): answers
  • Er sitzt zwischen seinen Schwestern. (= He is sitting between his sisters.)
  • Er setzt sich zwischen seine Schwestern. (= He sits down between his sisters.)
  • Ich hänge das Bild andie Wand. (= I hang the picture on the wall.)
  • Das Bild hängt an der Wand. (= The picture is hanging on the wall.)
8 22 contractions with definite article
am = an + dem: (= am Bahnhof)

ans = an + das: (= ans Telefon gehen)

beim = bei + dem: (= beim Arzt)

vom = von + dem: (= vom Flughafen)

im = in + dem: (= im Gefängnis)

ins = in + das: (= ins Haus gehen)

zum = zu + dem: (= zum Arzt gehen)

zur = zu + der: (= zur Kasse gehen)

8.22 Contractions with definite article
8 23 genitive prepositions
(an-) statt  instead of

trotz  despite

während  during

wegen  because of

um…willen  for the sake of

aufgrund  for reasons of

angesichts  in view of

anlässlich  on the occasion of

infolge  as a result of

8.23 Genitive prepositions
8 24 genitive usage in written german
8.24 Genitive usage in written German
  • The 4 four common genitive prepositions - statt, trotz, während and wegen - should be used with the genitive in written German.
  • You may hear the dative used in colloquial speech, but this should not be imitated!
  • The only instance where you have to use the dative case with these 4 prepositions is when they are followed by a pronoun - e.g. wegen mir, trotzihnen etc.
8 25 genitive prepositions examples
8.25 Genitive prepositions: examples
  • Er kommt trotzdes guten Wetters. (= He will come despitethe good weather.)
  • Sie fehlt wegen ihrer Reise. (= She is absent because of her journey.)
  • Es hat währenddes Sommers geregnet. (= It rained duringthe summer.)
  • Das schicke ich dir statt eines Briefes. (I’m sending this to you instead ofa letter.)
8 26 genitive prepositions
innerhalb  inside

außerhalb  outside

oberhalb  above

unterhalb below

inmitten  in the middle of

diesseits  on this side of

jenseits  beyond

beiderseits  on both sides of

unweit  not far from

8.26 Genitive prepositions
8 27 genitive prepositions examples
8.27 Genitive prepositions: examples
  • Maria wohnt außerhalbder Stadt. (= Maria lives outsidethe city.)
  • Das ändert sich innerhalb eines Jahres. (= That will change within a year.)
  • Wir wohnen diesseitsdes Flusses. (= We live on this side of the river.)
  • Was liegt jenseitsder deutschen Grenze? (= What is there on the other side ofthe German border?)
8 28 what is a conjunction
8.28 What is a conjunction?
  • A conjunction is a word such as ‘and’, ‘but’ or ‘when’ that connects clauses in sentences.
  • Unlike prepositions they do not take cases.
  • Instead German prepositions affect the positioning of the verb within the clause that they introduce.
  • As in English, some German words function as bothconjunctionsandprepositions.
8 29 preposition or conjunction
Conjunction

während “Während er liest, schreibe ich oft.”

seit “Seit sie gestorben ist...”

bis “Bis du zurückkommst...”

Preposition

während “während seines Urlaubs” (+ Gen.)

seit “seit ihrem Tod” (+ Dative)

bis “bis letzten Freitag” (+ Acc.)

8.29 Preposition or conjunction?
8 30 two different words
8.30 Two different words
  • BUT certain words that can function as both prepositions and conjunctions in English require two different words in German.
  • ‘before’:Prepositionvor (+ Dative)Conjunctionbevor, ehe
  • ‘after’:Prepositionnach (+ Dative)Conjunction  nachdem
8 31 preposition or conjunction
Conjunction

before  “Bevor / ehe er wegging, las er das Buch.”

after  “Nachdem sie gestorben ist, war ich traurig.”

Preposition

before  “vor seiner Reise” (+ Dative)

after  “nach ihrem Tod” (+ Dative)

8.31 Preposition or conjunction?
8 32 quiz 3 which word
8.32 Quiz (3): which word?
  • Lars rauchte, _______ d__ Kind__ sprach. (= Lars was smoking whilethe child spoke.)
  • Ich kenne sie ________ letzt___ Jahr. (= I have known her sincelast year.)
  • _____ mein__ Geburtstag war ich müde. (= Before my birthday I was tired.)
  • ______ d__ Mann__ gezahlt hatte, ging er. (= Afterthe man had paid, he left.)
8 33 quiz 3 answers
8.33 Quiz (3): answers
  • Lars rauchte, während das Kind sprach. (= Lars was smoking whilethe child spoke.)
  • Ich kenne sie seit letztem Jahr. (= I have known her sincelast year.)
  • Vor meinem Geburtstag war ich müde. (= Before my birthday I was tired.)
  • Nachdem der Mann gezahlt hatte, ging er. (= Afterthe man had paid, he left.)
8 34 coordinating conjunctions
8.34 Coordinating conjunctions
  • Coordinating conjunctions link clauses of the same kind.
  • If both clauses are main clauses (der Hauptsatz), then the conjunction is followed by regular word order.
  • e.g. Er kam ins Büro.Er setzte sich hin. Er kam ins Büro, und er setzte sich hin.
8 35 coordinating conjunctions
denn  as, for

oder  or

und  and

entweder … oder  either … or

aber  but

(allein  but

doch  but

jedoch  but

sondern  but)

8.35 Coordinating conjunctions
8 36 coord conjunctions examples
8.36 Coord. conjunctions: examples
  • 1) Denn clauses must never be placed in the first position in a sentence: Die Straßen sind nass,denn es hat geregnet. (= The streets are wet becauseit has rained.) - NOT: “Denn es hat geregnet, sind die...”
  • 2) Note the way that entweder .. oder is used: Entwederer kommt jetzt,oder wir gehen! (= Either he arrives now or we leave!)
8 37 how to translate but
8.37 How to translate “but”
  • 1) Aber is the usual equivalent of ‘but’: Sie sah mich an,aber sie sagte nichts. (= She looked at me but she said nothing)
  • 2) Sondern corrects a preceding negative: Wir sind nicht nach Hause gegangen,sondernwir haben in der Kneipe gearbeitet. (= We didn’t go home, but worked in the bar.)
  • 3) Allein, doch and jedoch are literary terms.
8 38 how to translate but 2
8.38 How to translate “but” (2)
  • Aber, doch and jedoch can also be used as adverbs or modal particles.
  • They have the same meaning when used in this way but the word order is different:
  • Sie sah mich an,aber sie sagte nichts.
  • Sie sah mich an,sie sagte aber nichts. (= She looked at me but she said nothing) Version 1 = Conjunction Version 2 = Adverb
8 39 subordinate clauses
8.39 Subordinate clauses
  • A subordinate clause (der Nebensatz) is one that depends on a main clause (der Hauptsatz) in order to make sense.
  • Such clauses are introduced by a subordinating conjunction.
  • e.g. “I’ll be angryif you arrive late.” “I’m not surewhether that will work.” “When it rains in Portsmouth, it never stops.”
8 40 subordinate clauses
8.40 Subordinate clauses
  • After a German subordinating conjunction these two word order rules must be observed:
  • 1) The SUBJECT of the clause immediately follows the subordinating conjunction.
  • 2) The VERB goes to the end of the clause.

e.g. “Ich weiß, dass du wirklich faul bist.” “Ich bin nicht sicher,ob dasklappt.” “Sie vergaß,wie man es macht.”

8 41 subordinate clauses
8.41 Subordinate clauses
  • When a subordinate clause precedes a main clause, then:
  • 1) The VERB in the main clause becomes the first element in this clause.
  • 2) The SUBJECT of the main clause is the second element in this clause.

e.g. “Ob sie heute kommt,weißich nicht.” “Wenn es regnet,sindwir alle traurig.”

8 42 key subordinating conjunctions
8.42 Key subordinating conjunctions
  • ob “whether” Ich weiß nicht, ob es geregnet hat. (= I don’t know whether it has rained.)
  • obwohl, obgleich, obschon “although” Ich bin hier, obwohl es geregnet hat. (= I’m here although it has rained.)
  • dass “that” Ich weiß, dass es geregnet hat. (= I know that it has rained.)
8 43 conjunctions of time
als  when

bevor / ehe  before

bis  until

indem  as

nachdem  after

seit(dem)  since

sobald  as soon as

solange  as long as

während  while

wenn  when

wie  as; how

8.43 Conjunctions of time
8 44 how to translate when
8.44 How to translate “when”
  • wenn present, future, repeated past actions Ich bringe es, wenn ich heute vorbeikomme. (= I’ll bring it when I pop by today.)
  • als single non-repeated action in past Als ich ankam, warst du nicht da. (= You weren’t there when I arrived.)
  • wann specific questions about time Er fragte ihn, wann er nach Hause kommt.
8 45 causal conjunctions
8.45 Causal conjunctions
  • da “as, since”. First clause in sentence: Da er beschwipst ist, darf er nicht fahren. (= As he is drunk, he must not drive.)
  • weil “because”. Second clause in sentence:

Er darf nicht fahren, weil er beschwipst ist.

  • zumal “especially as” Er hilft ihr sicher, zumal er sie gern hat. (= He’ll help her, especially as he likes her.)
8 46 conjunctions of result
8.46 Conjunctions of result
  • Um…zu (+ Infinitive) “in order to” when the subject of both clauses is the same: Ich bin nicht hier, um das Problem zu lösen.
  • damit “in order to” when the subject of both clauses is not the same: Ich bin hier, damit du es lösen kannst. (= I’m here so that you can solve it.)
  • so dass “accidental result”. Es regnete, so dass wir nicht wandern konnten.
8 47 conditional conjunctions
8.47 Conditional conjunctions
  • wenn “if, whenever” Er besuchte sie, wenn er nach Berlin käme.(He visited her whenever he came to Berlin.)
  • falls “if, in case” Komm mit, falls du Lust hast! (Come with us if you should feel like it!)
  • für den Fall, dass “if, in case” Für den Fall, dass ihr uns nicht findet… (In case you don’t find us...)
8 48 quiz 4 word order
8.48 Quiz (4): word order
  • Wenn du willst, _______ ____ _______ . (= If you want I’ll stay here.)
  • ____ ___ ___ _____ ____, sage ich nein. (= As I don’t know you, I’ll say no.)
  • ____ ___ ___ ____ _______ , lebte er noch. (= When I left the house, he was still alive.)
  • Genieß das Leben, _______ ____ _______ ! (= Enjoy life as long as you can!)
8 49 quiz 4 answers
8.49 Quiz (4): answers
  • Wenn du willst, bleibeich hier. (= If you want I’ll stay here.)
  • Da ich Sie/dich nicht kenne, sage ich nein. (= As I don’t know you, I’ll say no.)
  • Als ich das Haus verließ, lebte er noch. (= When I left the house, he was still alive.)
  • Genieß das Leben, solange dukannst! (= Enjoy life as long as you can!)