Literature notes Grade 10
POP QUIZ! • Name the two types of literary genre thatyoustudied in grade 9. 2. Complete the following sentences: First person point of viewis… Thirdperson point of viewis… 3. Name the twomost important aspects of the setting of a story.
POP QUIZ! 4.Complete the following sentences: The protagonist of the story is… The antagonist of the story is… 5. Name four different types of conflict. (*hint: person vs…) 6. Draw a representation of the plot diagram.
POP QUIZ! 7. Whatis the theme of a story? 8. Complete the following sentences: A dynamiccharacteris… A staticcharacteris… 9.Definesimile, metaphor, and personification.
POP QUIZ! 10. Associateeach type of imagerywithits description: a) Visual 1) Touch b) Auditory 2) Smell c) Olfactory 3) Sight d) Gustatory 4) Taste e) Tactile 5) Hearing
Literary genres Literary genres are the types/categories of a story: • Fiction(not true) • Non-fiction(true) • Biography(true life story) • Autobiography(author is writing his life story) • Poetry • Drama(play) • Essay(opinion)
Point of View It is the position from which the story is told (narrator) 2 types : • 1st person point of view: the person telling the story is in the story. The reader can only know what the narrator sees, hears, and thinks. (ex : “When I left the store, I walked ten blocks to go back to my home. I was so tired that I decided to go straight to bed.”) 2) 3rd person point of view : the person telling the story (narrator) is not in the story. The reader can know the thoughts and feelings of all the characters. (ex : When Shane left the store, he walked ten blocks to go back to his home. He was so tired that he decided to go straight to bed”.
Setting(5 W’s) Time(when): when the story is happening (year, month, day, season, etc.) Place(where): where the story is happening (city, country, school, home, etc.) Atmosphere(what) : what is going on ? (nervous, tense, happy, etc.) Condition(why) : why is this story happening ? (has a big exam, is fighting in a war, got his drivers license, etc.) Occupation (who) : what are the jobs of the main characters ?
Conflict A conflict is a struggle (problem) between two opposing forces or beliefs in a story. In a story, there is usually a protagonist and an antagonist. Protagonist : Usually the main character (« good guy ») Antagonist : Usually the character that creates a problem (« bad guy ») The conflict is often resolved when one force succeeds or fails in overcoming the opposing force.
Types of Conflict Person vs. person Person vs. nature Person vs. time Person vs. technology
Types of Conflict Person vs. self (internal conflict) Person vs. fate/God Person vs. society Person vs. supernatural
Plot diagram The plot of the story is the sequence (plan) of events that make up the action in a story. There are 6 parts in the plot : • Preliminary action • Complicating incident • Rising action (suspense) • Climax • Falling action • Outcome/conclusion 4 5 3 6 2 1
Theme The main idea, moral, or message of a story, often about life, society, or human nature. Ex : when you are kind and generous to others, good things will happen to you. Hate, jealousy, love, and friendship are universal themes, but you can be more specific(love is worth dying for, hate can ruin your life, etc.)
Characters • Dynamic : a character who changes, is complex. • Static : a character who does not change, is one-dimensional.
Figures of Speech • Simile : Comparison using “like” or “as”. Ex : He is a like a tiger on the field. • Metaphor : A metaphor is a comparison of two things, where one is said to be the other. Ex : He is a tiger on the field. • Personification :Giving human qualities to non-humans or inanimate objects. Ex : The cars danced on the icy road.
Pathos A passage in a piece of writing that appeals to the readers emotions and evokes in the reader a feeling of pity and compassion (you feel for the character)
Author’s purpose(why did the author write the story ?) • To entertain or amuse • To present a universal truth • To thrill • To study a psychological, social, or moral problem • To study a character • To inform • To educate • To make a social statement
Foreshadowing/Flashback • Foreshadowing : dropping of important hints or clues by the author to prepare the reader for what is to come in the story. • Flashback : a writing device by which the author interrupts the main action of a story to recreate or recall a situation or incident that happened earlier in time.
Imagery • Visual • Auditory • Tactile • Gustatory • Olfactory • Kinesthetic (involuntary muscle movement. Ex : twitching muscle)