Scope and application of stem cell research in livestock
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Scope and Application of Stem Cell Research in Livestock. Jayanti Tokas 1 , Puneet Tokas 2 , Shailini Jain 3 , Hariom Yadav 3 1 Department of Biotechnology, JMIT, Radaur, Haryana, India 2 KITM, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India 3 NIDDK, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA

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Scope and application of stem cell research in livestock l.jpg
Scope and Application of Stem Cell Research in Livestock

Jayanti Tokas1, Puneet Tokas2, Shailini Jain3, Hariom Yadav3

1Department of Biotechnology, JMIT, Radaur, Haryana, India

2KITM, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India

3NIDDK, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA

Email: yadavhariom@gmail.com


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Stem Cell

  • Stem cells are master cells with two important characteristics

    • Unspecialized cells capable of their own renewal

    • Ability to differentiate into different cell types

  • The stem cells may have various differentiation potentials

    • Totipotent

    • Pluripotent

    • Multipotent

    • Unipotent


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Types of stem cells

  • Embryonic stem cells

  • Adult stem cells


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Characteristics of Embryonic stem cells

  • Derived from ICM/epiblast of Blastocyst

  • Pluripotent

  • Long-term self-renewal

  • Exibit and maintain a stable diploid normal complement of chromosome

  • Expression of Oct-4

  • Lacks G1 check point in the cells cycle

  • Don’t show X inactivation


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Stemness Genes

  • Oct4

  • Nanog

  • SSEA1

  • SSEA2

  • SSEA3

  • BMP4


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Characteristics of Adult stem cells

  • Long-term self-renewal

  • Give rise to mature cells having characteristic morphologies and specialized functions

  • Rare

  • Dispersed in tissues throughout the body

  • Origin of adult stem cells in tissues is yet not known


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Tissues containing adult stem cells

  • Bone marrow

  • Skeletal muscle

  • Epithelia of skin and digestive system

  • Cornea retina

  • Peripheral blood

  • Spinal cord

  • Blood vessels

  • Testes

  • Liver

  • Pancreas

  • Kidney

  • Heart, etc


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Stem cells speciality

  • Apoptosis

    No apoptosis in stem cells

  • Telomere

    No shortening of telomere in stem cells

  • DNA Methylation

    Minimum DNA methylation in stem cells


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ES cells from livestock species

Iwaski et al 1990 ICM proportion lower in bovine IVF embryos than in vivo produced

Saito et al 1992 Bovine embryonic stem cells grow slower than murine embryonic stem cells

Hamers et al 1995 Bovine culturing embryo derived cells resemble epithelial cells rather than pluripotent ICM cells

Talbot et al 2000 Bovine embryonic cells grew as cell sheets. Passaging by physical dissociation

Li et al 2003 Porcine ICMs isolated by enzymatic method. Two embryonic cell lines cultured upto 6 passages

van Eijk et al 1999 Bovine Oct 4 pseudogene isolated

Wang et al 2005 ES cells from cloned bovine embryos with marker staining pattern similar to bovine blastocysts

Yadav et al 2005 Bovine ICM derived cells express the Oct4 ortholog


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MajorApplications

  • Animal model testing for pharmaceutical research

  • Use of stem cells in transplantation and cell replacement therapy

  • Conservation of endangered species

  • Understanding fundamental events in embryonic development

  • Therapeutic delivery system

  • To resolve mysteries of developmental biology

  • To investigate genes involved in differentiation and development

  • Cell banking for research applications


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Identification of stem cells

  • Cell morphology

  • Expression of unique cell surface antigens

  • Characterization of biochemical markers such as tissue specific enzymatic activity

  • Expression of genes that are unique to a particular cell type

  • Nuclear chromosomal karyotype to access genetic stability


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Scope

  • Pharmaceuticals: diabetes, cardiac anomalies, neurodegeneration, and infertility

  • Neutraceuticals : produce heterologous nutrients

  • Understanding early embryonic development

  • Model for in vitro drug and immunity screening

  • Producing environment friendly animals eg. Phytase and methane

  • Tissue remodeling and engineering

  • Cell-cell communication and differentiation

  • Conservation

  • Germ stem cells challenge age old dogma of female born with fixed number of oocytes


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Livestock stem cells

  • Farm animals are contributing in human health through

    • Nutrition

    • Producing biomedicine

    • Cell therapy

    • Xenotransplantation

  • With decoding of the genome sequences in animals, stem cell promise to resolve many mysteries of the developmental biology


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Transgenic animals with important agricultural traits

  • Bovine alpha lactalbumin in mammary glands of sows–improves lactation performance

  • Sheep carrying Kerartin – IGF-1 construct shows expression in skin for clear fleece in transgenic animals

  • Transgenic pig bearing an hMt-pGH construct tightly regulated by Zinc feeding - improves traits as growth rate, feed conversion, body fat muscle ratio

  • Phytase gene exclusively expressed in salivary gland enables the pigs to digest phytate which can be metabolized by the intestine. Release low phosphorus in manure


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Transgenic in Biomedicine

Proteins synthesized in farm animals milk

  • Bovine - 2 Human lactoferrin

  • Caprine - 5 TPA

  • Ovine - 4 Alpha AT

  • Pigs - 2 AT III

  • Rabbits - 7 Alpha glucosidase