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Powered Industrial Truck (PIT) Training. Firelands College. Shaeff Electric Lift Truck E 3000 C. Agenda. Importance of the PIT Training Program; OSHA’s PIT standard; BGSU’s written PIT Program; Truck related topics; Workplace related topics; Truck operations; Traveling; Loading and;

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powered industrial truck pit training

Powered Industrial Truck (PIT) Training

Firelands College

Shaeff Electric Lift Truck E 3000 C

  • Importance of the PIT Training Program;
  • OSHA’s PIT standard;
  • BGSU’s written PIT Program;
  • Truck related topics;
  • Workplace related topics;
  • Truck operations;
  • Traveling;
  • Loading and;
  • Inspection and maintenance.
importance of the pit training program
Importance of the PIT Training Program

PIT Defined

  • An industrial vehicle that carries, pushes, pulls, stacks or tiers loads.
  • Includes fork trucks, tractors, platform lift trucks, motorized hand trucks, and other specialized industrial trucks powered by electric motors or internal combustion engines. Golf carts are considered PIT’s when used for maintenance activities.
  • Excludes compressed air or nonflammable compressed gas-operated industrial trucks, farm moving or over-the-road hauling.
importance of the pit training program4
Importance of the PIT Training Program
  • Powered industrial truck accidents cause approximately 100 fatalities and 36,340 serious injuries in general industry and construction annually.
  • Approximately 20-25 % of the accidents are caused by inadequate training (OSHA).
importance of the pit training program5
Importance of the PIT Training Program

August 2003

A 15-year-old forklift operator was at the controls of a forklift in a warehouse when the vehicle suddenly went into reverse, ran through the loading dock gates, flipped over and plunged four feet onto a concrete floor. The company was fined by the U.S. Labor Department’s Wage and Hour Division because the operation is one of 17 hazardous occupations banned for youth under the age of 18. OSHA is also investigating the incident.

Reference: http://www.safteng.net

importance of the pit training program6
Importance of the PIT Training Program

August 2003

A construction worker at a California campus was left in critical condition after he was pinned by a forklift. He was attempting to stabilize the forklifts load of more than 30 panes of glass. He suffered leg injuries, broken ribs, a broken shoulder, and severe lacerations to his face.

Reference: http://www.safteng.net

osha s pit standard
OSHA’s PIT Standard
  • Design and construction requirements
  • Safe operation requirements
  • Fire protection requirements
  • Maintenance requirements including daily PIT inspections
  • Operator training program including classroom, hands-on training and refresher training
  • Operator evaluations every three years
  • Operator certification
  • Appendix A : Stability information
bgsu s written pit program
BGSU’s Written PIT Program
  • Initial classroom and hands-on training was offered in 1999 after the new standard went into effect.
  • The training was given by an outside consultant who has since gone out of business.
  • In order to provide a more cost effective, easily accessible training program, Environmental Health and Safety is working with departs and areas on campus to develop department specific PIT training sessions consisting of a combination of classroom and hands-on training.
bgsu s written pit program9
BGSU’s Written PIT Program
  • Policy Statement
  • Forward
  • Objective
  • Applicability
bgsu s written pit program10
BGSU’s Written PIT Program
  • Responsibilities
    • Occupational Safety and Health Specialist
    • Management
    • Supervisors
    • PIT Operators
bgsu s written pit program11
BGSU’s Written PIT Program

PIT Operator Responsibilities include:

  • completely adhering to the requirements of this program and attending required training and;
  • performing powered industrial truck inspections for every eight-hour shift.

Program Enforcement

  • A violation of a University employee's responsibility must be reported to the employee's immediate supervisor for appropriate action.
bgsu s written pit program12
BGSU’s Written PIT Program
  • Work site specific information is located in Tab 1 including:
    • Site Specific Operating Environment
    • Site Specific Load Information
    • Site Specific Controls and Instrumentation List
bgsu s written pit program13
BGSU’s Written PIT Program
  • Training
    • Classroom Training
    • Hands-On Training
    • Training Certification
      • All operators will be issued a BGSU PIT license that includes:
        • Name
        • Date of training
        • ID of person who performed the evaluation
      • Only trained, certified operators can drive PIT’s.
bgsu s written pit program14
BGSU’s Written PIT Program
  • Re-Training is required when
    • An operator has been observed to operate the vehicle in an unsafe manner or;
    • The operator has been involved in an accident or a near miss or;
    • The operator is assigned to a different truck or;
    • The conditions change in an area where the PIT is operated or;
    • A new truck is brought into use or;
    • The operator has received an evaluation that reveals that the operator is not operating the powered industrial truck safely.
bgsu s written pit program15
BGSU’s Written PIT Program
  • Operator Evaluations
    • Must be completed once every three years.
    • A sample form is located in Appendix G.
  • Accident Reporting
    • Immediately report PIT related accidents.
    • Accident reporting must be completed using the BGSU Accident Investigation form and if needed the BGSU Injury/Illness Report if an operator is involved in PIT accident or near miss.
truck related topics
Truck Related Topics
  • Manufacturer’s operating instructions, warnings, and precautions.
truck related topics18
Truck Related Topics

Stand Up Counterbalance

truck related topics19
Truck Related Topics

Truck Controls and Instrumentation

Direction Control


Power Steering

Tilt Control

Key Switch

Service Panel

truck related topics20
Truck Related Topics

Truck Controls and Instrumentation

Overhead Guard



Front Wheel Drive

Battery Compartment

Brake Pedal

truck related topics22
Truck Related Topics
  • Engine or motor operation
    • Shaeff Electric Lift Truck E 3000 C is battery powered.
    • Knowing how a truck is powered helps to understand the truck’s capabilities and limitations.
truck related topics23
Truck Related Topics
  • Steering and Maneuvering
    • Rear-end steering.
    • Many trucks do not have a standard steering wheel.
    • Operator may need to steer in reverse.
    • Operator may need to steer with one hand.
    • Understand the controls for the type of truck you’re operating.
truck related topics24
Truck Related Topics
  • Visibility
    • Restrictions due to loading.
    • Look in the direction you’re traveling.
    • Watch for overhead obstacles.
    • Ensure adequate clearance.
    • Check blind spots to side and rear.
truck related topics25
Truck Related Topics
  • Fork and attachment adaptation, operation, and use limitations
    • Trucks can be equipped or modified to accept attachments for moving odd-shaped loads.
    • Additions/modifications may affect stability, safe operation.
    • Attachments can cause restrictions/limitations to operation.
    • Operate trucks with attachments as being partially loaded.
truck related topics26
Truck Related Topics
  • Vehicle capacity
    • Only handle loads within truck’s rated capacity.
    • Capacity is found on name plate.
    • Understand limitations for how much weight can be handled, how high the load can be raised, and how far the load’s center of gravity can be from truck’s vertical load rest.

Max Capacity: 3000 lbs

Max Lift Height: 255 inches

(Located on Left Dashboard)

truck related topics27
Truck Related Topics
  • Vehicle stability
    • Center of gravity shifts when load is raised
    • Truck is less stable with raised load
    • Moving an unstable truck can result in tipover
truck related topics28
Truck Related Topics

Stability Triangle

Operators must keep the center of gravity within the triangle that is formed by the three suspension points.   If the center of gravity goes out of this area by lifting a load that is too heavy, or by carrying a load too high and tilted forward, the lift will tip over.

truck related topics30
Truck Related Topics
  • Conditions that combined with turning may cause a tip over include:
    • Hitting a pothole
    • Carrying an off center load.
    • Getting a flat tire.
    • Having a raised and tilted back load.
    • Being on a ramp.
truck related topics31
Truck Related Topics
  • Vehicle stability
    • During a tipover:
      • stay with vehicle and lean away from the direction of the fall
      • don’t jump downward while truck is tipping
      • Brace your feet
      • Hold on to the steering wheel
    • Keep load at lowest practical point
truck related topics32
Truck Related Topics
  • Refueling and/or charging and recharging of batteries
    • Keep flames, sparks, arcs from fueling areas.
    • Smoking is not allowed in fueling/charging areas.
    • Keep tools and metallic objects from top of uncovered batteries.
    • Inspect battery connections for damage.
    • Immediately clean up electrolyte spills.
    • PPE – Face Shields, chemical gloves, apron, safety glasses.
truck related topics33
Truck Related Topics
  • Any other operating instructions, warnings, or precautions listed in the operator's manual for the types of vehicle that the employee is being trained to operate.
workplace related topics
Workplace Related Topics
  • Use
    • Unloading trucks
    • Lift objects to mezzanine (furniture etc…)
    • Lift to dry mats
    • Transport material (ramps, staging)
  • Surface conditions
    • Water, snow, ice
      • Effects on traction, stopping ability
    • Uneven ground and/or potholes
      • Effects on stability
workplace related topics35
Workplace Related Topics
  • Pedestrian Traffic
    • Transporting material across courtyard


workplace related topics36
Workplace Related Topics
  • Narrow Aisles and Other Restricted Places Where Vehicles Will Be Operated
    • One aisle in the service building
workplace related topics38
Workplace Related Topics
  • Load manipulation, stacking, and unstacking.
workplace related topics39
Workplace Related Topics
  • Hazardous (classified) locations where the vehicle will be operated.
    • Operation of PIT in closed environments can produce carbon monoxide build-up. Detectors should be installed in these areas.
workplace related topics40
Workplace Related Topics
  • Ramps and other sloped surfaces that could affect the vehicle's stability.
    • None
workplace related topics41
Workplace Related Topics
  • Other unique or potentially hazardous environmental conditions in the workplace that could affect safe operation.
    • None
truck operations
Truck Operations
  • Trucks shall not be driven up to anyone standing in front of a bench or other fixed object.
  • No person shall be allowed to stand or pass under the elevated portion of any truck, whether loaded or empty.
truck operations43
Truck Operations
  • Unauthorized personnel shall not be permitted to ride on powered industrial trucks.
  • A safe place to ride shall be provided where riding of trucks is authorized.
truck operations44
Truck Operations
  • No arms or legs should be placed between the uprights of the mast or outside the running lines of the truck.
  • When a powered industrial truck is left unattended, load engaging means shall be fully lowered, controls shall be neutralized, power shall be shut off, and brakes set.
truck operations45
Truck Operations
  • Wheels shall be blocked if the truck is parked on an incline.
  • A powered industrial truck is unattended when the operator is 25 ft. or more away from the vehicle which remains in his view, or whenever the operator leaves the vehicle and it is not in his view.
truck operations46
Truck Operations
  • When the operator of an industrial truck is dismounted and within 25 ft. of the truck still in his view, the load engaging means shall be fully lowered, controls neutralized, and the brakes set to prevent movement.
truck operations47
Truck Operations
  • A safe distance shall be maintained from the edge of ramps or platforms while on any elevated dock, or platform or freight car.
  • Trucks shall not be used for opening or closing freight doors.
truck operations48
Truck Operations
  • Brakes shall be set and wheel blocks shall be in place to prevent movement of trucks, trailers, or railroad cars while loading or unloading.
  • Fixed jacks may be necessary to support a semitrailer during loading or unloading when the trailer is not coupled to a tractor.
  • The flooring of trucks, trailers, and railroad cars shall be checked for breaks and weakness before they are driven onto.
truck operations49
Truck Operations
  • There shall be sufficient headroom under overhead installations, lights, pipes, sprinkler system, etc.
truck operations50
Truck Operations
  • An overhead guard shall be used as protection against falling objects. It should be noted that an overhead guard is intended to offer protection from the impact of small packages, boxes, bagged material, etc., representative of the job application, but not to withstand the impact of a falling capacity load.
truck operations51
Truck Operations
  • A load backrest extension shall be used whenever necessary to minimize the possibility of the load or part of it from falling rearward.
  • Only approved industrial trucks shall be used in hazardous locations.
  • Fire aisles, access to stairways, and fire equipment shall be kept clear.
  • All traffic regulations shall be observed, including authorized plant speed limits.
  • A safe distance shall be maintained approximately three truck lengths from the truck ahead, and the truck shall be kept under control at all times.
  • No passing.
  • The right of way shall be yielded to ambulances, fire trucks, or other vehicles in emergency situations.
  • Elevators shall be approached slowly, and then entered squarely after the elevator car is properly leveled. Once on the elevator, the controls shall be neutralized, power shut off, and the brakes set.
  • Motorized hand trucks must enter elevator or other confined areas with load end forward.
  • Other trucks traveling in the same direction at intersections, blind spots, or other dangerous locations shall not be passed.
  • The driver shall be required to slow down and sound the horn at cross aisles and other locations where vision is obstructed and when approaching pedestrians.
  • If the load being carried obstructs forward view, the driver shall be required to travel with the load trailing.
  • Railroad tracks shall be crossed diagonally wherever possible. Parking closer than 8 feet from the center of railroad tracks is prohibited.
  • Running over loose objects on the roadway surface shall be avoided.
  • The driver shall be required to look in the direction of, and keep a clear view of the path of travel.
  • Dockboard or bridgeplates, shall be properly secured before they are driven over.
  • Dockboard or bridgeplates shall be driven over carefully and slowly and their rated capacity never exceeded.
  • Grades shall be ascended or descended slowly.
  • Stunt driving and horseplay shall not be permitted.
  • The driver shall be required to slow down for wet and slippery floors.
  • When ascending or descending grades in excess of 10 percent, loaded trucks shall be driven with the load upgrade.
  • On all grades the load and load engaging means shall be tilted back if applicable, and raised only as far as necessary to clear the road surface.
  • Under all travel conditions the truck shall be operated at a speed that will permit it to be brought to a stop in a safe manner.
  • While negotiating turns, speed shall be reduced to a safe level by means of turning the hand steering wheel in a smooth, sweeping motion.
  • Except when maneuvering at a very low speed, the hand steering wheel shall be turned at a moderate, even rate.
  • When approaching a load
    • Make sure forks are spread as wide as possible.
    • Make sure the truck is square to the load.
    • Make sure the mast is vertical.
  • Only stable or safely arranged loads shall be handled.
  • Caution shall be exercised when handling off-center loads which cannot be centered.
  • Only loads within the rated capacity of the truck shall be handled.
  • The long or high (including multiple-tiered) loads which may affect capacity shall be adjusted.
  • Keep the load close to the ground while driving.
  • Raise the forks as much as you need to clear the road surface.
  • Trucks equipped with attachments shall be operated as partially loaded trucks when not handling a load.
  • When lifting a load place forks under the load as far as possible; the mast shall be carefully tilted backward to stabilize the load.
  • Inspect load for stability, projections, and damaged pallets before lifting.
  • Restack unstable loads and never place weight on back of a lift truck to increase capacity.
  • Extreme care shall be used when tilting the load forward or backward, particularly when high tiering.
  • Tilting forward with load engaging means elevated shall be prohibited except to pick up a load.
  • An elevated load shall not be tilted forward except when the load is in a deposit position over a rack or stack.
  • When stacking or tiering, only enough backward tilt to stabilize the load shall be used.
  • Parking
    • Lower forks.
    • Set gear into neutral.
    • Set the parking brake.
    • Turn off the key.
inspection and maintenance
Inspection and Maintenance
  • If at any time a powered industrial truck is found to be in need of repair, defective, or in any way unsafe, the truck shall be taken out of service until it has been restored to safe operating condition.
  • Fuel tanks shall not be filled while the engine is running. Spillage shall be avoided.
inspection and maintenance66
Inspection and Maintenance
  • Spillage of oil or fuel shall be carefully washed away or completely evaporated and the fuel tank cap replaced before restarting engine.
  • No truck shall be operated with a leak in the fuel system until the leak has been corrected.
inspection and maintenance67
Inspection and Maintenance
  • Open flames shall not be used for checking electrolyte level in storage batteries or gasoline level in fuel tanks.
  • All repairs shall be made by authorized personnel.
inspection and maintenance68
Inspection and Maintenance
  • No repairs shall be made in Class I, II, and III locations.
  • Those repairs to the fuel and ignition systems of industrial trucks which involve fire hazards shall be conducted only in locations designated for such repairs.
inspection and maintenance69
Inspection and Maintenance
  • Trucks in need of repairs to the electrical system shall have the battery disconnected prior to such repairs.
  • All parts of any such industrial truck requiring replacement shall be replaced only by parts equivalent as to safety with those used in the original design.
inspection and maintenance70
Inspection and Maintenance
  • Industrial trucks shall not be altered so that the relative positions of the various parts are different from what they were when originally received from the manufacturer, nor shall they be altered either by the addition of extra parts not provided by the manufacturer or by the elimination of any parts.
  • Additional counterweighting of fork trucks shall not be done unless approved by the truck manufacturer.
inspection and maintenance71
Inspection and Maintenance
  • Industrial trucks shall be examined before being placed in service, and shall not be placed in service if the examination shows any condition adversely affecting the safety of the vehicle.
  • Such examination shall be made at least daily.
  • Where industrial trucks are used on a round-the-clock basis, they shall be examined after each shift.
  • Defects when found shall be immediately reported and corrected.
inspection and maintenance72
Inspection and Maintenance
  • Water mufflers shall be filled daily or as frequently as is necessary to prevent depletion of the supply of water below 75 percent of the filled capacity.
  • Vehicles with mufflers having screens or other parts that may become clogged shall not be operated while such screens or parts are clogged.
  • Any vehicle that emits hazardous sparks or flames from the exhaust system shall immediately be removed from service, and not returned to service until the cause for the emission of such sparks and flames has been eliminated.
inspection and maintenance73
Inspection and Maintenance
  • When the temperature of any part of any truck is found to be in excess of its normal operating temperature, thus creating a hazardous condition, the vehicle shall be removed from service and not returned to service until the cause for such overheating has been eliminated.
inspection and maintenance74
Inspection and Maintenance
  • Industrial trucks shall be kept in a clean condition, free of lint, excess oil, and grease.
  • Noncombustible agents should be used for cleaning trucks.
  • Low flash point (below 100 deg. F.) solvents shall not be used. High flash point (at or above 100 deg. F.) solvents may be used.
  • Precautions regarding toxicity, ventilation, and fire hazard shall be consonant with the agent or solvent used.
inspection and maintenance75
Inspection and Maintenance

Inspection Form

See Tab 2

inspection and maintenance76
Overhead guard

Hydraulic Cylinders

Mast Assembly

Lift Chains and Rollers



Battery Check

Hydraulic Fluid






Engine Oil and Coolant

Windshield wipers

Safety Seat

Load Handling Attachments

Seat Belts

Safety Door

Safety Switch

Hand Guards

Tow Hook

Control Lever

Safety Interlock

Gripper Jaws

Work Platform

Propane Odor, Tank, Hose

Transmission Fluid

Inspection and Maintenance

Pre-Inspection Checklist

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What is Wrong With This Picture?

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What is Wrong With This Picture?

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What is Wrong With This Picture?

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What is Wrong With This Picture?

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What is Wrong With This Picture?

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where to get more information
Where to Get More Information
  • http://www.osha.gov. Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
  • http://www.bgsu.edu/offices/envhs. Bowling Green State UniversityEnvironmental Health and Safety419-372-2171