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Georgia in a “Flash” SS8H2
James Oglethorpe • Born into a wealthy family • A British soldier member of British Parliament • Became an advocate for prison reform after a friend died in an overcrowded Debtor’s Prison • Secured a charter from King George II to establish a colony south of Carolina • A place for the “worthy poor” to start over
Trustees • A group of 21 men who were chosen to oversee the Georgia colony for 21 years. • They were not to make a profit off of the colony. • Why would this be important?
King George II • King of England from 1727 – 1760 • Ruled over a time of great poverty and overcrowding in England • Many wars had nearly bankrupted the country • At the same time, the country was establishing colonies to try and improve their nations’ economy
Charter of 1732 & Reasons for Settlement • A charter is a legal document that grants special rights and privileges. • The GA Colony had several rules • No Catholics • No Blacks • No lawyers • No liquor dealers or liquor production/consumption • Reasons for Settlement • Defense • To defend the profitable Carolina colony from the Spanish threat in Florida • Economics • To provide resources back to the home country • Charity • To provide relief to the debtors and overcrowding in England, and to offer a chance for the “worthy poor” to start over
Chief Tom • He was the leader of the Yamacraw (Creek) tribe • He granted permission to Oglethorpe and his settlers to establish the Georgia Colony on Yamacraw Bluff • Established a friendship with Oglethorpe that lasted until the Chief’s death
Mary Musgrove • She was born to a Creek mother and an English father. • She acted as an interpreter for Oglethorpe with Chief Tom • This allowed the GA colony to have a smoother establishment than most other colonies
City of Savannah • The city was created in such a way that each resident had an equal amount of land • This prevented classes from forming (inequality) • Each settler was to work their land • Silk and grapes from wine were supposed to be the top items GA produced • 40 settlers died in the first year • Climate, disease, poor sanitation
Salzburgers • German Protestants seeking religious freedom • Led by John Martin Bolzius • Established the city of Ebenezer • Moved after a year due to flooding and poor land • New city called “New Ebenezer”
malcontents • The word malcontent means “unhappy” • The malcontents were made up mostly of Scottish settlers, but many others as well who were unhappy with the restrictions against: • Land ownership • Slavery • Production & sales of liquor
Highland scots • Oglethorpe recruited about 175 people from Scotland to help provide protection from the Spanish in Florida • The Highland Scots were known for their bravery and fighting skills • Established the town & fort of Darien • Helped Oglethorpe defeat the Spanish at the Battle of Bloody Marsh
Spanish threat from Florida • The Spanish still controlled Florida, and they were constantly a threat to the British colonies. • Oglethorpe and other colonists had to defend themselves from the Spanish at the Battle of Bloody Marsh. • Oglethorpe and his men (mostly Highland Scots) were able to defeat the superior Spanish Army. • This defeat caused the Spanish to give up their plans to attack the British, and weakend their army even further.